Week 2 notes for HST102x
Week 2 notes for HST102x HST102
Popular in Western Civilization: Ancient and Medieval Europe
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ann on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HST102 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Ian Moulton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
10/12/2016 HIST102x Western Civilization: Ancient and Medieval Europe: Week 2 notes - Greece ____________________________________________________________________________ __ Main Concepts: *Introduction to Ancient Greece *War/Politics *Trade/Economics *Religion *Culture/The Arts *Daily Life *Legacy Introduction to Ancient Greece: - They got wheels, the lunar/solar calendar, and the alphabet from other civilizations - Can see the influence of Green innovation in what we use to describe branches of knowledge o Philosophy = “love of wisdom” o Geometry = “measuring land” o History = “Chronicle” o Geography = “writing about the Earth” o Astronomy = “knowledge about the star” - Greece was a culture, not a single city state - Barbaroi – what Greeks called non-Greeks and is where we get the word barbarians from. - Fought among themselves but could unite if needed to defeat and enemy. 1. Lecture: The Parthenon - In Athens - Is a temple for Athena (Goddess of Wisdom) - Built in the 5 Century BCE on the Acropolis - Built to signify defeating the Persians - Was used as the city’s treasury 10/12/2016 - When Christianity took over Athens, it became a church and remained one for 1000 years - Became a mosque when the Ottoman Turks conquered Athens - Was eventually destroyed mostly by a bomb Section 2: War and Politics 1. 431-404 BCE: Peloponnesian War between democratic Athens & the military oligarchy Sparta a. Marked the end of Athenian control in Greek affairs 2. Pericles’ Funeral Oration a. Written by Thucydides b. More literary than simply a historical document c. It demonstrates the values of Greek democracy 3. Reading of Xenophon: Spartan Society (c400 BCE) a. Gives an idea of Spartan society b. Written by Xenophon whom was an Athen citizen and student of Socrates c. He always had great respect for Sparta 4. Lecture: The Iliad (poem) a. Written by Homer (we think) b. Were probably passed down orally first c. Epics (long poems) d. Tells the story of the Trojan War (a mythic war) e. The Iliad focuses on a time when Achilles decides he does not want to fight, Patroclus’ death, Achilles getting back into battle f. Ends with Achilles giving Hector’s body back to the Trojan king, Priam, for burial g. Tells us a lot about Greek culture/ customs h. Does not demonize the enemy 5. Lecture: Athens, Sparta, Greek City States a. Greek civilization was highly influenced by its geography b. Relied on trade/ sea ports c. Athens was a democracy d. Sparta was a military city state e. Alexander the Great i. Conquered Persia, Egypt, the middle east, and Northern India (336-323 BCE) ii. Spread Hellenic (Greek) culture/ traditions iii. Founded 20 cities using his own name f. The two leagues signed a truce in 445 BCE but it did not last 10/12/2016 g. Delian League i. Created to protect against future invasions ii. Created alliances for Athens iii. Members paid Athens money for protection h. Peloponnesian League i. Created by Sparta ii. Dominated neighboring city states using force Section 3: Trade & Economics 1. Herodotus a. Famous historian (the first Greek historian) b. Came from Halicarnassus in Asia Minor c. Wrote detailed accounts of the 5 Century BCE conflicts between Greeks and the Persian Empire d. Herodotus’ Histories describes how trade between different cultures caused tension between the two cultures 2. Lecture: The Odyssey & Sea Travel a. Also by Homer (we think) b. Talks about the return from Troy and the Greek hero Odysseus c. Odysseus experiences many adventures throughout the poem d. Odysseus comes home to find men hanging out in his house and trying to win over his wife (he kills the suitors) e. A key theme of the poem is hospitality 3. Sea Travel a. Was super important for the Greeks b. Was the easiest was to get around c. Athenians were very good at fighting at sea d. Amphorae (large jugs) were used as shipping containers e. Greeks controlled much of the Mediterranean 4. Slavery a. An intrinsic part of Greek society b. Was fundamental to Greek economy c. Ethnocentrism is present in much of Aristotle’s writings on the topic of slavery and ethics d. Slaves also became a commodity e. Were often paid, but had no civil rights f. Often depicted in artwork as smaller to show that they were seen as less important (like the regular citizens in Egyptian artwork) g. Possibly up to 30% of the population were slaves h. Slaves could be highly skilled/ educated and were often teachers 10/12/2016 i. Often in dramas masters were shown as dumb, while their slaves were depicted as smart Section 4: Religion 1. Reading: Hesiod- Works and Days a. Hesiod is one of the earliest Greek poets b. He wrote poem “Theogony and Works and Days” (700 BCE) c. Deals with the origins of gods and human life, offers mythical explanations for the harshness of life d. Wrote the story of Pandora 2. Greek Religion a. Polytheistic b. Gods represented aspects of nature, human activities and abilities (exp. War) c. Most powerful gods thought to live on Mount Olympus in Northern Greece together as a family d. Thought of as powerful, but not perfect beings e. Had human emotions f. Actions could make one god happy, while angering another g. Tartarus: place of punishment h. Elysian Fields: place of happiness i. Ordinary people were seen as living in the afterlife as Shades, or shadows of their past selves j. Greek gods worshiped in temples i. Thought of as houses for the gods ii. Contained statues of the gods iii. Worship took place outside k. Gods could be swayed by prayer l. Oracles spoke for the gods and were often female m. Women took a major role in Green religion 3. Greek Gods a. When the Roman Empire conquered Greece, they took the Greek gods and integrated the into Roman religion b. Each of the gods have a Greek name and then a Roman name c. Greek gods are not omnipotent, more humanlike ** Video of lecture gives more detailed information on how the gods are related to each other family/ story wise ** 10/12/2016 Section 5: Culture & the Arts 1. Reading: Plato’s Republic (c360 BCE) a. Plato argues that ideally a state should be ruled by reason and led by philosophers b. He argues that most people live life in an illusion and rarely see reality for what it is 2. Lecture: Greek Theater a. Semicircle design b. Included an architectural backdrop, or Skene (where we get the word scene from) c. Actors would perform in the circular space called the orchestra d. Most theaters could hold up to 14,000 people e. Began as part of religious festivals, such as worshiping Dionysus f. All actors were male and wore huge masks g. Plays were written in poetic meter 3. Lecture: Philosophy a. Philosophy i. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were the 3 greatest philosophers ii. Socrates was sentenced to death iii. Socrates believed that we should always ask ourselves how we know what we know and be aware of our failures/ limitations iv. Socrates believed the soul was immortal b. Plato i. Wrote a lot (often about Socrates) ii. Was Socrates’ student iii. Believed that the truth of the world was in ideas and what he called the forms iv. Believed that the soul is more important than the body; intellect was more important than luxury c. Aristotle i. Plato’s student ii. Focused more on the world around us; was interested in understanding the world iii. Father of Science iv. Wrote about physics, logic, metaphysics, ethics, politics, natural history, nature of animals, and the like v. Alexander the Great was his student 10/12/2016 Section 6: Daily Life 1. Reading: Homer’s Iliad a. In book VI of the Iliad we are shown a detailed view of Greek family life b. Men fought in wars; women maintained the household c. Homer does make it clear, however, that women suffer just as much as men from war 2. Reading: Xenophon’s Oeconomicos a. One of the earliest structured writings about the management of a household and estate b. Our word “economy” comes from the Greek word for household c. Depicts women as subordinate to their husbands and the idea that women should confine themselves to the household; use of casual sexism/ sexist language 3. Lecture: Women in Greek Society a. Slaves i. No political rights ii. Were seen as property b. Free People i. Usually wealthy ii. Often land owners iii. Responsibility of civil participation iv. Women & children had no political rights depending on which city they lived in c. Formal education for men starting around age 6 d. Women were taught in the home e. Women could own property f. Marriage often arranged based on a dowry g. If unmarried by age 15, a girl was considered a disgrace to herself and her family h. Women were beaten/ humiliated publically for disrespecting their husbands i. Wealthier the woman was, the more restricted her movements were (Athens) j. A little more freedom is offered to the women in Sparta Section 7: Legacy 1. Reading: Selected poems of Sappho a. One of the greatest Greek lyric poets b. Female c. Wrote mostly about love d. Lived on the island of Lesbos sometime between 630 and 570 BCE 2. Reading: The Apology of Socrates a. Apology simply refers to defending yourself in Greek culture, not saying sorry b. An account from Plato of Socrates defending himself at his trial 10/12/2016 3. Lecture: The Olympics a. Greeks created the Olympics in 776 BCE b. All free Greek males were entitled to participate c. More in-depth description of events during the games in video 4. Lecture: The Legacy of Ancient Greece a. Democracy “Demos” = people “Kratia” = power b. Court system & jury trials first observed here c. Philosophy “Philo” = love “sophis” = wisdom d. Poetry, based on the Greek word “poesis”, meaning to make something e. Drama, is the Greek word meaning “to do something” f. Sports were a huge part of their culture (like in ours today) ** I hope my notes help you out! Please let me know if there is any way I can make my notes better for you**