HIS 2110, Week 9 Populism, Progressivism, and Prohibition
HIS 2110, Week 9 Populism, Progressivism, and Prohibition HIST 2110
Popular in Survey of U.S History (HIST 2110-
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hagar Notetaker on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2110 at Georgia State University taught by Prof. Casey P. Cater in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Survey of U.S History (HIST 2110- in History at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
HIS 2110 10/18/16 Week 8 Populism, Progressivism, & Prohibition The Progressive Era (19 century-1920) o 2 primary areas of reform Economic Social o Reformers: Freedom/democracy demanded more active gov’t Efficiency Expertise o Gov’t starts interfering with daily life o People want more state powers to help improve daily life Industrialization of US o 1860-1910, us industrial production > Europe’s By 1910: US production was greater than all major European countries combined Most economic change US ever experiences o Farmer to factory economy o Rise of corporations & Wall street 1890’s: great increase in corporations People’s trade in stocks increase so Wall street and financial sectors boom o A lot of wealth o “Gilded Age” – Mark Twain o Bellwether of industry Bellwether (n.)- leading sheep in a flock that has a bell upon it. Railroads 1869: transcontinental railroads completed 1860-1880: US RR mileage doubled 1880-1920: doubled again Growth of Cities o 1910: 50 US cities had +100K residents (NY= 4.7 mill) Large Cities: NY, Boston, San Francisco, Philadelphia, etc. o Immigrants (S. & E. Europe) Mostly Catholics Source of large urban growth 1901-1914, >13 million immigrants came to US Often working class & poor NY was about 40% immigrant by 1910 Immigrant life dominated NE & MW cities A lot of stereotypes began to rise HIS 2110 10/18/16 Week 8 Economic Inequality o Accumulation of Wealth 1890, wealthiest 1% earned as much as poorest 50% o Corporations began to rise & poor began to be more poor o Wealth was concentrated in few hands as well as land o Justifications: Social Darwinism Comes from Herbert Spencer (student of Darwin) Survival of the fittest: Rich are fit, poor unfit “Laissez-faire” or free-market economics Reform Movements o Created mostly by farmers and factory workers b/c they felt their wealth was being stolen by 1% & gov’t Green backers Knights of labor AFL o Economic reforms Populists Labor o United fight against “disinheritance” Disinheritance o 1870’s-1880’s Millions of farmers/sharecroppers in debt Farmers unwillingly drawn into national economy Crop turns into credit given by merchant to buy provisions o Ends up putting things on a tab, crop doesn’t always turn out to be = to the debt b/c of crop increase so $ worth decrease, getting in more and more debt o “Anaconda Mortgage” Loss of American birthright Believed it was rigged system o Farmers’ alliance 1mill members by 1880 Restore small farmers “Money power” & “monopoly” = thieves Jeffersonian o William Northern elected to help farmer’s alliance in congress but didn’t do shit Populist Party Platform (The People’s Party) o Won a few states in 1892 but didn’t win election Unpopular by 1896 HIS 2110 10/18/16 Week 8 o Reaffirming Founding principles o Economic independence o Restore Inheritance: 1. Graduated income tax The more you earn the more tax you pay 2. Fed gov’t ownership of railroads Socialism 3. Direct legislation/elections Mostly Senators (b/c state legislator chose senators without people’s vote) Reform Movements pt.2 o Social Reform Social purity & morality Industrial & urban life is degrading Lack of gov’t involvement was a problem o Believed: Child labor should be stopped Prostitution illegalized Woman’s movement expanded Temperance o 1830s-1880s Suasion (n.)- persuasion as “Moral Suasion” opposed to force or compulsion o Little regulation of alcohol Avg. American drank 5-6 gallons a year 2.5 gallons a year nowadays o Mid-19 C. social policy coercive Rise of Prohibition o People called on gov’t to prohibit alcohol th By beginning of 20 century, push against alcohol increased Advertised that “wet” vote made wealthy wealthier & “dry” vote helped families o Prohibition & progressivism Reforms offered critique of passive gov’t o Appeal was both private & public Alcohol harmed families, businesses, & gov’t The Anti-Saloon League o Collective Responsibility o Founded in Ohio in 1890’s, in south by 1900’s HIS 2110 10/18/16 Week 8 Founded by preacher Actually managed to pass prohibition law o Political/gov’t action thru social/moral pressure o Message: destroy alcohol Surrender some freedom o “Mad dog” analogy: shoot the dog! Some saw it as “avoid it if it’s not your business” Some saw it as “educate children and public to avoid alcohol” o Moral sentiment combines w/ political action Prohibition in GA o 1880’s-1907: local laws that prohibit alcohol buying o “Black Drunkenness” & violence = need for prohibition o 1907, GA legislature passed prohibition Impacts of Prohibition o Laws & opinion against production of alcohol o Social purity, public order, & stability Wanted more gov’t action Wealthy attempting to control lower classes o New definition of the relationship between individual & state o Sacrifice personal freedoms for greater good
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