Behaviorism and Constructivism
Behaviorism and Constructivism EDP 201-Educational Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by meghan Hamilton on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDP 201-Educational Psychology at Miami University taught by Darrel Davis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see EDP 201-Educational Psychology in Education and Teacher Studies at Miami University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Behaviorism: perspective on learning that focuses on changes in an individual’s observable behavior ● Focus on behavior instead of thought Operant conditioning: focuses on how the consequences of a behavior affect behavior over time ● Certain consequences tend to make behaviors happen more frequently ● B.F. Skinner: pointed out operant conditioning in humans and animals ○ Observed a rat in a cage ○ First, the animal would sniff around the cage. Then it eventually found the lever with food on it ○ Gradually the animal would spend more time near the lever instead of other places in the cage ○ This behavior represented operant conditioning. The food was the reinforcement and the lever pressing was the operant ● Schedules of reinforcement and cues affected the operant conditioning ● Reinforcement was more effective when it happened immediately after the operant ● This is widespread in classrooms ○ Teaching is about making certain consequences ○ Operant conditioning can encourage intrinsic motivation Key concepts about operant conditioning: ● Extinction: disappearance of operant behavior because of lack of reinforcement ● Generalization: incidental conditioning of behaviors similar to an original operant ● Discrimination: learning not to generalize ● Schedules of reinforcement: pattern or frequency by which reinforcement is linked with the operant ● cues: a stimulus that happens just prior to the operant behavior and that signals that performing the behavior may lead to reinforcement Constructivism: is a perspective on learning focused on how students actively create (or “construct”) knowledge out of experiences Psychological Constructivism: a person learns by mentally organizing and reorganizing new information or experiences ● Organization happens when you relate new knowledge/experiences to previous ones ● Dewey: students learn by building on their own knowledge, and teachers should adjust the curriculum to fit students prior knowledge and interests as fully as possible ● Piaget: described learning as an interplay between two mental activities called assimilation and accommodation ○ Assimilation: the interpretation of new information in terms of preexisting concepts, information or ideas ○ Accommodation: the revision or modification of preexisting concepts in terms of new information or experience ○ cognitive equilibrium: which is a balance between reliance on prior information and openness to new information ■ Schema: mental representations ● Vygotsky: you start as a learning novice, move into the ZPD and stay there with help of an expert Social Constructivism: focused on the relationships and interactions between a learner and other individuals who are more knowledgeable or experienced ● instructional scaffolding: meaning a temporary framework like the ones used to construct buildings and that allow a much stronger structure to be built within it ● Vygotsky: focused on how a child’s or novice’s thinking is influenced by relationships with others who are more capable, knowledgeable, or expert than the learner ○ Difference between solo performance and assisted performance is the ZPD In both psychological and social constructivism, the novice isn’t really taught, simply allowed to learn Teacher’s role in social and psychological constructivism ● Relationship of learning and longterm development of the child ○ Teachers must provide a rich classroom environment so children can act independently and gradually make themselves ready for verbal learning ○ Vygotsky: believes that social interaction is necessary in stimulating the development of the child ● Role of generalizations and abstractions during development ○ Young students are taught to reason to see immediate results ○ From this perspective a teacher should limit the amount of thinking about abstract ideas that she expects from students ○ Abstract thinking is possible, but it emerges relatively slowly ○ Social constructivism sees abstract thinking emerging from dialogue between a relative novice (a child or youth) and a more experienced expert ● How development occurs ○ Psychological constructivism: A teacher can stimulate development by confronting a student with sights, actions, or ideas that do not fit with the student's existing experiences and ideas ■ Usually done by posing questions or ideas that students may have misunderstood in the past ○ Social constructivism: teacher collaborating with students' ideas rather than challenging their ideas or experiences ● Implications of constructivism for teaching ○ Bloom’s taxonomy: six kinds of learning goals that teachers can in principle expect from students, ranging from simple recall of knowledge to complex evaluation of knowledge ■ Knowledge: recalling facts, information, or procedures ■ Comprehension: understanding facts and interpreting information ■ Application: using concepts in new situations, solving particular problems ■ Analysis: distinguishing parts of information, a concept, or procedure ■ Synthesis: combining elements or parts into a new object, idea, or procedure ■ Evaluation: assessing and judging the value or idea, objects, or material in a particular situation ○ Metacognition: an ability to think about and regulate one’s own thinking Review from Quiz ● Learning a second language during adulthood: they are past their sensitive period ● 4 key features of Piaget’s Theory: going in order, each stage building on top of previous stages, etc... ● Bioecological model: Jimmy attends a school in the state of Maryland ○ He was in the exosystem ○ His friends would be in the microsystem Foundations of Learning ● Learning itself is a permanent change in behavior resulting from experiences ○ It is something that you have to work at doing ● Major learning theories ○ Behaviorism: learning as changes in overt behavior ■ Blank slate ■ Focuses on EXTERNAL events ■ Behavior is a product of environment ● No need for mental reference/innate causes ● No mind/soul/spirit ■ Human behavior can be studied similar to natural science ■ B.F. Skinner: we don’t necessarily have free will, but our behavior makes us think we have free will ■ Premack principle: states that a morepreferred activity can serve as a reinforcer for a less preferred activity ● You will get something you want if you do something you dislike ○ Constructivism: learning as changes in thinking ● Classical conditioning: focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses such as fear, increased muscle tensions, salivation, or sweating ○ Neutral stimulus: paired with a stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response until eventually, neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus leading to a conditioned response ○ Stimulus: event that activates a behavior ○ Response: observable reaction to the stimulus ○ Pavlov’s experiment ○ Neutral stimulus: has no initial response(ringing of bell will have no initial response for dog) ○ Unconditioned stimulus: is a stimulus that naturally causes a response(smell of the food causes dog to salivate) ○ Unconditioned response: is the natural response to an unconditioned stimulus(dog salivating in response to the smell of the food) ○ Conditioned stimulus: neutral stimulus becomes paired with the unconditioned stimulus(ringing bell when food is presented leads to association with food) ○ Conditioned response: is the response to the conditioned stimulus(dog hears bell only with no food present) ● Operant conditioning ○ Learning where voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences of antecedents ■ antecedents> behavior> consequences ○ Operant: voluntary behaviors exhibited ○ Antecedents: events that precede an action ○ Consequences: events that follow an action ○ Reinforcer: any event that follows a behavior and increases the chances that behavior will occur again ○ Reinforcement: use of consequences to strengthen behavior ○ Positive: adding something ■ Positive reinforcement: increase the desired response by adding a desired stimuli(praise, good grades) ○ Negative: taking away something ■ Increases the desired response by taking away an unpleasant behavior(stopping buzzer, reducing nagging) ○ Presentation punishment(positive punishment): suppresses a behavior by adding an undesired consequences(scolding, detention) ○ Removal punishment(negative punishment): suppresses a behavior by removing a desired consequence(no tv, timeout) ○ Continuous schedule: reinforcement after every appropriate response ○ Fixed reinforcement: ■ Fixed interval: reinforcement after set period of time ■ Fixed ratio: reinforcement after a set number of responses ○ Variable reinforcement: ■ Variable interval: reinforcement after varying lengths of time ■ Variable ratio: reinforcement after varying number of responses ○
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