Week 7 Wildlife
Week 7 Wildlife ENWC 201
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Menos on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENWC 201 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. McCarthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Wildlife conservation & Ecology in WIlldlife Conservation and Ecology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Disease 10/11/16 Why concerned with wildlife disease? • killing off populations • can affect livestock and pets • can affect us • wildlife diseases are connected to o public health/loss of life (animal and human) o agriculture (livestock) o recreational use of wildlife o conservation of threatened and endangered species Wildlife disease • basic vocab o disease § a disturbance to the normal function or structure of an organism o epizootic § a disease that appears at an unexpected rate § synonymous with epidemic in humans o infectious disease § viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites (external and internal) § passed from animal to animal/individual to individual § pathogen – a disease-causing agent § Ex: chronic wasting disease (CWD) ú incorrectly folded proteins (prions) – wont function properly ú end up with exponential growth of an incorrect protein structure in body ú vacuoles caused by prions affect brain ú in cows: mad cow disease ú passed through saliva o non-infectious disease § toxins (man made, plant, fungal, bacterial) physiological, nutritional, congenital, degenerative, cancer § no pathogens § not passed from individual to individual § Ex: mercury poisoning ú heavy metal toxin ú product of coal and other fossil fuel power generators Disease 10/11/16 ú also emitted when items with mercury are incinerated 9thermomenters, batteries, light switches, fluorescent bulbs) ú bioaccumulation • accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism • occurs when an organism absorbs a possibly toxic substance at a rate faster the substance is lost by catabolism and excretion • refers to how pollutants enter food chain ú biomagnification • the concentration of toxins in an organism as a result of its ingesting other plants or animals in which the toxins are more widely disbursed • refers to the tendency of pollutants to concentrate as they move from one trophic level to the next • disease dynamics o reservoir § any living or nonliving substance that may perpetuate a pathogen in nature o reservoir host § a host that acts as a reservoir for the pathogen by does not suffer ill effects from the disease o vector § an organism that carries pathogens from one host to another or from a reservoir to a hose § biological vector ú an animal vector in whose body the pathogenic organism develops and multiplies before being transmitted to the next host § mechanical vector ú a vector that conveys pathogens to a susceptible individual without essential biologic development of the pathogens in the vector o host § an organism on or in which another organism lives • disease and agriculture o becomes serious when disease shuts down economy of a state Disease 10/11/16 o bison/elk and cattle in Yellowstone • disease and endangered species o conservation § Common loons ú lake erie • avian botulism type E o quagga and zebra mussels o algae beds o invasive round gobi fish o over 1000 loons killed on one lake § Serengeti Lion ú rabies ú canine distemper – killed 33% lions left in 1994- 1995 • increasing disease emergence o why are we seeing the emergence of so many diseases § more people ê § more habitat alteration ê § more stress on animals – increase in disease ê § more human/wildlife interactions – increase in disease o oil spill ( high stress ) § latent herpes § stress from habitat altercation and handling by humans • zoonosis o an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans o ex 1: Lyme Disease § cause: bacteria § transmission: deer tick and lone-star tick § symptoms: rash, fever, swollen lymph nodes, etc § let untreated, further complications may arise: ú meningitis, facial palsy, heart abnormalities, arthritis o ex 2: West Nile Virus § cause: virus § transmission: mosquito ú virus reservoir: birds ú vector: mosquito ú incidental infection: humans, horses § symptoms: most do not develop illness Disease 10/11/16 ú 1/5: West Nile fever ú 1/150: severe infection • typically fatal § no specific treatment available o ex 3: Avian flu ( H5N1 ) § poultry populations § mortality rate above 60% § NOT transmissible human-human o ex 4: SARS § originated in hong kong ú bats § was transmissible human-human § 8422 cases and 916 deaths in 37 countries § high human fatality § outbreak contained in 2003 but NOT eradicated o ex 5: ebola § vector: fruit bat § 28K infected § 11K died Habitat Loss 10/13/16 habitat • the physical and biological resources required by an organism for its survival and reproduction; these requirements are species-specific habitat loss/degradation • largest threat to biodiversity and the leading cause of animal extinctions in the world habitat degradation • impacts many, but not all species • causes o live stock grazing o invasive species habitat fragmentation • reduction in the area covered by habitat, change in configuration • division if large habitat area into smaller patches • small patches = less population stability • edge effects: o air and soil temp, moisture, light o vegetation density o predator intrusion o community composition o smaller patches = more edge, less interior per square km o irregular shape = more edge, less interior per square km • the matrix: the surrounding landscape of fragmented habitat o matters in terms of how affects fragments • Examples o interior forest birds, nest parasitism § brown headed cow bird – edge nest parasite § cerulean warbler – “host” o florida panther § too many for current habitat § those who try to find other habitats get hit by cars habitat loss • impacts so severe that almost all species are adversely affected • 3 types o urbanization § urban sprawl : unplanned, uncontrolled spreading of urban development to areas adjoining edges of cities o conversion Habitat Loss 10/13/16 § when human activates transform one habitat type into another ú native habitat to agriculture or pasture ú management ( ie damming or fire suppression ) § Examples ú Greater prairie chicken • changes in natural vegetation • habitat diverted into something other than prairie ú Wetlands • an area of land that is either saturated or flooded a majority of the time • supports vegetation that can withstand an extremely moist environment • hydric soil: wet with low oxygen • have impact on o Water quality o Water quantity o Bank stabilization o Wildlife habitat § Fish nurseries § Food and energy for the entire ecosystem • Chesapeake bay watershed o 60% loss of wetlands o climate change § rapid changes limit ecosystems ability to adapt § can remove key habitat components ( ice for polar bears ) § can aid process which destroy ( coral bleaching )
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