ANTH101 Chapter 6
ANTH101 Chapter 6 ANTH101013
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by JJ Kett on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH101013 at University of Delaware taught by Dettwyler,Katherine A in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology in Anthropology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
10/17/16 ANTH101013 Chapter 6 – Getting People to Behave: Enculturation, Rules, and Politics Enculturation – “the most powerful tool that any group has at its disposal for getting people within the group to behave is the enculturation of children. From the moment of their birth, children are exposed to the social norms – the values, ethics, standard ways of thinking and behaving – that comprise their cultural heritage” Conformist/Conforming Societies o Where the rules are clear cut and everyone follows them, even large, complex societies can function very smoothly o Main disadvantage: personal freedoms are stifled and there is little toleration for variation in beliefs and behavior Nonconformist/Nonconforming Societies o Where the rules are less clearcut, are ambiguous, and/or where some or many people don’t follow the rules, society may function somewhat inefficiently or not very well at all o Main disadvantage: in a society where personal freedoms and choice are more highly valued, conflicts are more likely to arise and, in general, society functions less efficiently Types of Rules o Formal/informal – formal = legal; informal = assumed rules (things otherwise frowned upon by society) o Rules for breaking the rules o Customs Who Makes the Rules? o Bands (huntergatherers) – discussion and consensus; o One person (dictator) or a small group of influential people – based on: economic strength, hereditary kinship connections (royalty) military might, religious mythology, or some combination of power o Tribes – small groups of older men (gerontocracy) o Elected representatives How Can Rules Be Changed? o If you disagree with the status quo, your options are: Leaving the area/organization Attempting to change the rules through the current system (rebellion) Attempting to change the rules by overthrowing the current system (revolution) Ignoring the rules and hoping no one notices Teaching and Learning the Rules o Internal social controls Enculturation – internalizing beliefs and behavior from birth Tacit knowledge – learned from experiencing because it’s the norm; nothing that can be transferred verbally or through writing Internal sanctions – being taught how to feel if you did something positive/negative Positive actions bring – pride, happiness, satisfaction, etc. Negative actions bring – shame, guilt, fear, etc. Religious sanctions Positive – rewarded in this life (or the next) Negative – punished in this life (or the next) Moral Systems Absolutely do not have to be based on supernatural rewards/punishments You can be a moral person without believing in imaginary beings who lay out rules for you (aka: you can be moral without being religious!) o External Social Controls Positive/negative sanctions from others based on actions Being unaware of the consequences, or unable to grasp that one might be caught and punished o Witchcraft Beliefs As an explanation for why bad things happen, and As a way to get people to conform because Anyone who acts “oddly” may be accused of witchcraft (for unintentionally being evil and causing harm to others) Political functions of witchcraft beliefs: Hazel Crampton (anthropologist) – “state engine for removal of the obnoxious” – to convince people not to act weird/odd/out of the norm or go against rules o Continuum of Sanctions Verbal or physical Emotionbased Monetary consequences Fame or infamy Formalized or informal o “It takes a village” – belief in many cultures that “all adults are responsible for all children: To keep them safe Praise them for doing good Chastise them for doing something wrong Overall, to teach them how to be a good, moral person Bands (huntergatherers) o Nomadic or seminomadic o Small in size, about 2550 people o Politically egalitarian, lacking leadership o Composition of the band is flexible, bilateral descent with the use of Eskimo kinship terminology Tribes o Sedentary horticulturalists or herders, a few sedentary huntergatherers o 100+ people, size can vary o Headmen, big men, and other leadership roles, but authority is weak; As Yanomamo; or acephalous o Use persuasion and leading by example rather than coercion o Social organization still largely egalitarian o Segmented politically into lineages based on descent from a common ancestor (kinshipbased lineages) o Fairly recent form of human social organization – just since Neolithic Era Chiefdoms o Often based on farming or fishing o Can be hundreds or even thousands of people o Social hierarchy – sociallyranked societies with rules and commoners, and sometimes slaves as well o Chiefs vary from little power/authority to much power/authority o Chiefs get special privileges; commoners pay tributes to chiefs who may or may not redistribute it back to their subjects o Level of chiefdoms has included a few complex sedentary huntergatherers == most emerged within the last 13,000 years or so (just prior to the Neolithic Era) Very rare Most subsisted on marine resources Had highly developed arts, rituals, and economics based on redistribution of goods Engaged in warfare Statelevel Societies o Arose only 50006000 years ago o Political power is centralized at the top of a social hierarchy o Has ranks and social classes o Economy based on agriculture o Rulers have even more power than chiefs o Military organization with permanent armies, led by military specialists, operating within hierarchical command structures o Writing and mathematics taught o Urbanization, largescale irrigation of crops o Development of bureaucracy, professional policemen, soldiers, courts, jails/prisons NationStates o Originated in AD 1648 with the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia o Based on commercial agriculture, manufacturing and service industries, and informatics o Many modern nationstates have “artificial” borders imposed by outsiders i.e. Iraq, created by Gertrude Bell at the Cairo Conference in 1921, as well as most African countries o Nationstate borders don’t necessarily coincide with ethnic groups, or common languages, or shared religious/cultural beliefs Relationship Between Level of Social Organization and Typical Level of Violence/Justice Seeking o Band – selfredress killings Individual homicide; revenge killing Person injured takes revenge against person that began the fight If person was killed, close friends/relatives take revenge for them o Tribes – feuding Anyone from the group of the person injured/killed can take revenge against any/all member(s) of the group to which the original perpetrator belongs Concept of social substitutability Specific revenge for specific harm o Chiefdoms and states – warfare True warfare – entails relatively impersonal lethal aggression between communities General revenge for general harm (or sometimes no general harm even occurred in the first place o Nationstates – industrial warfare Evolution of Warfare o A weapon systems and strategies “improve,” the capacity for killing grows exponentially o We have reached the point where we can kill people: From a great distance Using many different techniques (nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons) Using many methods of delivery (even drones, where the person doing the killing is thousands and thousands of miles away from the site of the killing) o Fry’s Definition of War – “a group activity, carried on by members of one community against members of another community, in which it is the primary purpose to inflict serious injury or death on multiple nonspecified members of that other community; or in which the primary purpose makes it highly likely that serious injury or death will be inflicted on multiple nonspecified members of that community in the accomplishment of the primary purpose.” o Some definitions: Conflict – a perceived divergence of interests (where interests are broadly conceptualized to include values, needs, goals, and wishes) between 2 or more parties often accompanied by feelings of anger or hostility; not the same as aggression Aggression – the infliction of harm, pain, or injury on other individuals; can be divided into verbal and physical aggression Violence – severe forms of physical aggression, including war and feud; violence entails forceful attacks, usually with weapons, that can result in serious injury or death Individual Responsibility o Only the person who committed the crime is responsible o People have free will and can act independently of others o People control their own actions o Only the perpetrator should be punished for a crime Great effort goes into identifying the perpetrator and proving they were responsible Corporate Responsibility o All members of the “group” (however it may be defined) to which the person who committed the crime belongs are held responsible o All members are jointly responsible for the actions of each and every member = fungibility of group members o Groups members must control each other, or they may be retaliated against o Any member, some members, or all members of the group may be punished Types of Dispute Settlement o Nonviolent conflict resolution: Avoidance Toleration Resolve the conflict Forgive and forget Third party approach Rights to Respond to Violence o “the tendency is to shift the privilege rights of prosecution and imposition of legal sanctions from the individual (as in selfredress) and his kin group (as in feuding) over to clearlydefined public officials representing the society as such (as in courts of law)… welldeveloped chiefdoms and states usurp from individuals and kin groups the right to administer justice… States claim the right and duty to administer justice” Who Administers Justice? o Giving up one’s individual or kinshipbased rights to respond to harm caused by others, and acknowledging the rights of public authorities to prosecute and punish wrongdoers, is part of a belief in the rule of law Political Disputes o Have a similar underlying structure – invaders/conquerors exhibit a limited number of reasons and techniques for invasion Invaders o Three response categories to invaders: Resistors Collaborators “the Silent Majority” o When hierarchical societies are invaded: Those formerly in charge will resist the most Those formerly oppressed are most likely to cooperate with the invaders and resist the least
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