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Chapter 9

by: Savannah Alberty

Chapter 9 PSY2012

Savannah Alberty

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Chapter 9 Notes from the textbook and Class notes!
General Psychology
Ukonu, Nwakaego
Class Notes
Psychology, general
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Alberty on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Ukonu, Nwakaego in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 10/18/16
Chapter 9 According to Psychologist Edwin Boring, intelligence is whatever intelligence test measure. Sir Francis Galton believes intelligence is the y product of sensory capacity. Binet and Simon believe intelligence consists of higher mental processes. These two men designed the first intelligence test and say they measure reasoning, understanding, and judgment. Intelligence Test- Diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability. Abstract thinking- Capacity to understand hypothetical concepts, rather than concepts here and there. Intelligence ability  Reason Abstractly  Learn to adapt to novel environmental circumstances  Acquire knowledge  Benefit from experience According to Charles Spearmen, G(general intelligence)- Hypothetical factor that accounts for overall differences in intellect among people & S(specific abilities)- Particular ability level in a narrow domain. Types of Intelligence  Fluid Intelligence- Capacity to learn new ways of solving problems. It is used in situations the first time we try to solve something new for example a puzzle. (ex. trying to solve a puzzle we’ve never seen)  Crystallized Intelligence- Accumulated knowledge of the world acquired over time. Knowledge from newly learned tasks “flows” into our long term memories, “crystallizing” into lasting knowledge. (ex. answering questions like “what’s the capital of Italy?”)  Multiple Intelligences- Idea that people vary in their ability levels across different domains of intellectual skill.  Linguistic, Logic mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic. The Triarchic Model Model of intelligence proposed by Robert Stemberg positing three distinct types of intelligence: analytical, practical, and creative. Believes that having one does not ensure you have the others. This though has several weaknesses: practical intelligence is not independent of g. Causal relationship between job performance and practical intelligence is not clear. We all possess strengths and weakness, but they might not be as distinct as theorized.  Analytical Intelligence- The ability to reason logically, the “book smarts”.  Practical Intelligence- Also called “tacit intelligence”, the ability to solve real world problems, especially those involving other people. It is akin to “street smarts”.  Creative Intelligence- Also called “creativity”, our ability to come up with novel and effective answers to questions. It’s the kind of intelligence we need to find new and effective answers to questions. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence- Mixed scientific reaction to this model, as it is virtually impossible to falsify. Biological bases of Intelligence- Brain volume correlates positively with measured intelligence. But .3-.4 correlations don’t explain everything, and the relationship may not be causal. Evidence suggests cerebral cortex development is slower in gifted children. Intelligence may reflect efficiency of mental processing. Persons with higher intelligence show quicker reaction times. Working memory is also closely related to intelligence. Prefrontal cortex is especially active during highly “g-loaded” tasks (but other areas of the brain are also important). Central theme is that people who think quickly tend to be more intelligent. Intelligence Testing Unfortunately, we can’t just ask people how smart they are. Self-reports only correlate .2-.3 with objective measures of intelligence. The development of norms allows us to compare one person’s test results to another’s. Binet’s concept of mental age led to the development of the IQ. This works for children, but not adults. Modern IQ tests use a deviation IQ that eliminates age effects. Compares each person’s score to what is normal for his or her own age group. Stanford Binet IQ Test- Intelligence test based on the measure developed by Binet and Simon, adopted by Lewis Terman of Stanford University. Originally developed for children but since extended to adults, this consists of a wide variety of tasks like those of Binet and Simon used, such as measures that involve vocabulary and memory for pictures, naming familiar objects, repeating sentences, and following commands. Validity of IQ Scores- Moderately successful at predicting grades. Predict performance across wide variety of occupations and are associated with health related outcomes (Health literacy). Relationships hold up even when social class is taken into account. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)- Systematic means of quantifying differences among people in their intelligence. Mental Age- Age corresponding to the average individual’s performance on an intelligence test. Deviation IQ- Expression of a person’s IQ relative to his or her same-aged peers. Eugenics- Movement in the early twentieth century to improve a population’s genetic stock by encouraging those with good genes to reproduce, preventing those with bad genes from reproducing, or both. Forcible sterilization and immigration laws were most the visible impacts on society. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)- Most widely used intelligence test for adults today, consisting of 15 subtests to assess different types of mental abilities. The most commonly used IQ test for adults is this one. Commonly Used IQ Tests- Consists of 15 subsets that give 5 scores Culture Fair IQ Test- Abstract reasoning measure that doesn’t depend on language and is often believed to be less influenced by cultural factors than other IQs tests are. College Admission Tests- Designed to test overall competence in a specific domain or predict academic success. They correlate highly (7-.8) with IQ. Coaching courses appear to have very small effects, especially when practice effects are taken into account. Bell Curve- Intelligence follows a bell curve distribution. Distribution of scores in which the bulk of the scores fall toward the middle, with progressively fewer scores toward the “tails” or extremes. Mental Retardation- (also known as Intellectual disability), Condition characterized by an onset prior to adulthood, an IQ below about 70, and an inability to engage in adequate daily functioning. Around 1% of US population (mostly males). The more severe the intellectual disability, the less likely it is to run in families. Over 200 different causes; most common are Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome. ADA and IDEA acts have greatly impacted lives of those with intellectual disabilities. Reliability of IQ scores- In adults, scores tend to be highly stable over long periods of time. Prior to age three, though, IQ test are very unstable and poor predictors of adult IQ. Genius & Exceptional Intelligence- Refers to the top 2% of IQ scores. Large portion occupy certain professions: doctors, lawyers, engineers, professors. Terman’s “Termites” showed that prodigies do not “Burn Out” or have higher rates of mental illness. Genetic factors play a role, but so do practice and dedication. Intellectual brilliance with little effort is very unrealistic. Genetic influences on IQ- Family studies confirm that IQ runs in families. (siblings IQs correlate at.5, cousins at .15). Twin studies show identical twins correlations of .7 -.8, fraternal twins .3, -.4. But high levels of environmental deprivation may swamp out effects of genes. Twins reared apart are as similar in IQ as twins reared together. Adoption studies point to the influence of environment, but still strongly support importance of genetics on IQ. Environmental Influences on IQ- Those that think that IQ is fixed tend to take less academic risks, challenging themselves less. Children from larger families have slightly lower IQs than children from smaller families. Amount of schooling seems to exert a causal influence on IQ. Early intervention programs (Head Start) produce short-term increase in IQ. Reduce likelihood of being held back in school as well as high school dropout rate. Small impact on expectancy effects by teachers on IQ. Flynn Effect- The average IQ of the population has been rising by about 3 points every 10 years. Most likely the result of environmental changes: Increased test sophistication, increased complexity of the modern world, better nutrition, and changes at home and school. Group Differences in IQ- Both emotionally and scientifically charged and may become deeply entangled in the debate of politics involving biases and bad intentions. Sex Differences in IQ- Most research finds few or no average differences between males and females. But males more variable in their scores. Women tend to do better than men on some verbal tasks and Men tend to do better than women on some spatial tasks. Some, like spatial ability, may be biological. Most appear to be due to environmental difference (infants show few or no difference & sex differences in problem-solving strategies.) Reconciling Racial Differences- The differences between groups ae due to environment. The differences within groups reflect genetics. Within groups vs Between groups heritability. Differences, however, do not appear to be due to test bias on intelligence tests. Stereotype threat can be activated in the lab, but may not generalize to the real world. It is the fear that we may confirm a negative group stereotype. So, broad societal differences are most likely cause of IQ differences. Within-Group Heritability- Extent to which the variability of a trait within a group is genetically influenced. Between-Group Heritability- Extent to which differences in a trait between groups is genetically influenced. Test Bias- Tendency of a test to predict outcomes better in one group than the other. This is one popular explanation for race differences in IQ is that the tests are biased against certain groups and in favor of others. Creativity- Often measured using tests of divergent thinking, “outside the box” thinking. “uses of an object” test. But we also need to be good at convergent thinking: finding the single best answer to a problem. Divergent thinking: A thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. Only mildly correlated with IQ (.2, -.3). Evidence of link between creativity and bipolar disorder (manic episodes increase quantity of work, but not quality.) Still, the best predictor of quality of work is quantity of work. Emotional Intelligence- The ability to understand our own and others’ emotions, then apply that information. Not clear that emotional intelligence differs much from personality. May not predict job performance beyond general IQ. It consists of several subcomponents, such as the capacity to understand and recognize one’s emotions, to appreciate others’ emotions, to control one’s emotions, and to adapt one’s emotions to diverse situations. Wisdom- Application of intelligence toward a common good. Wise people balance three competing interests: Self-interest, concerns for others concerns about broader society. Ideological Immune System- Our psychological defenses against evidence that contradicts our views.


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