Week 9 Notes: Germany
Week 9 Notes: Germany ARH 316B
Popular in Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Dengler on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 316B at University of Arizona taught by Professor Plax in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture in Art History at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
October 13, 2016 Germany - Looking almost exclusively at architecture o Not a lot of German painters o No German Academy o No Germany as we know it today (made up of states/regions) until 19 century o Being a painter/sculptor was not considered a dignified job Most in Germany were French/Italian - In the 18 century, Europe was a hodgepodge of independent unites o Some were no bigger than a mile o Germany was a patchwork quilt of principalities - Parts of Germany were part of the Holy Roman Empire (Hapsburg Empire) o Symbolic governing entity made up of some of the units o Two branches Senior branch (Spanish branch), Naples, Flanders were part of it Junior branch (Austrian branch) - Vienna was seat of the branch of Austrian branch o They needed a big palace (expression of palace) Versailles was the model of a palace – set the standard for what a palace should look like - France was considered the center of the cultural universe o Many palaces were modeled after Versailles - Schonbrunn Palace, 1695-1749 o Based on Versailles o Plan of the gardens Important part of any palaces o Maria Theresa Maria Theresa is the main reason the palace is spectacular Embarked on many remodeling and building projects Had many children (16) Marie Antoinette’s mother Married off her daughters to important diplomats in many countries to stabilize diplomatic relations Martin van Meytens, Maria Theresa in the Family Circle, 1754 Martin van Meytens, State Portrait of Maria Theresa State portrait o Copies made and send out as gifts to diplomats Doesn’t wear the crown o The Gloriette A visual termination point to the garden Covered with symbols referring to Hapsburg rule o Main Entrance German palaces tend to be painted, which is a different from Versailles Often pastel colors o Court of Honor The entrance court Arms flank out to create/enclose the court (similar to Versailles) o Fountains Versailles is dotted with fountains The Apollo Fountain Louis XIV compared himself to the sun king Schonbrunn Neptune Fountain o Long Hall/Gallery of Mirrors Versailles – Hall of Mirrors Light comes in and reflects off of mirrors (symbol of sun king) Looks out onto garden Schonbrunn, Large Gallery Long, rectangular ceremonial room that looks out over garden Done in a more Rococo style (18 century) Ceiling painting done by an Italian artist o Not a strong art center Not a centralized unified state 30 years’ war devastated the country The Academy of arts wasn’t as important as people starving o Lots of foreign artists working in different ports in Germany o Artists were not considered as important in Germany as they were in France and Italy o The court at Schonbrunn was much more relaxed o Rooms Maria Theresa oversaw the decoration Rooms show trends of 18 century design Interest in exotic far away places Irregular shaped rooms Lacquer Room Boiseries with insets that look like Chinese Lacquer Ware o In Asia, lacquer ware was very common (layer after layer of lacquer of tree resin laid over) o Imported to Europe and became very popular o Great vogue for Asian lacquer ware o European countries began making their own “fake” Asian lacquer ware Rococo boiseries Million room Rocai, irregular shapes Within those shapes are cut up Mughal Manuscripts o Maria Theresa’s took very valuable of the manuscripts and cut them out and put them up on the walls China Room White walls with gold vegetative Rocai broken curves Lacquer within curves Called China room because of the China porcelain ware from China o Blue and white patterns o All on stands Intricate inlaid wooden floors Round room - Wurzburg Residence o Architect: Balthazar Neumann (Austrian) o Follows basic palace plan o One features of German Palaces is thstaircase (big, monumental, showy staircase) Ground floor was not the level that the people lived on by owners Wurzburg staircase is one of the most spectacular staircases Ceiling above staircase is covered by fresco by Tiepolo (also did Cleopatra frescoes) Venetian painter who worked in many places Bent Axis Approach: the kind of staircase where it gets bent at the landing and splits apart Staircases Augsburg Bruhl Palace Staircase o Statues made out of stucco along staircase Berlin, Great Staircase, Berlin Palace o Has half-length statue Versailles, Staircase of the Ambassadors o Designed to showcase the figure (to be seen and presented) o Torn down by Louis XIV to create suite of apartments for 5 unruly daughters As a symbol of his disdain for them – put them over on the other side of the building o Rooms all in a row connected by doorways (but there is also a hallway) Enfilade (linked together) + hallway o Organized into suites of apartments Elector and wife lived in certain suites Some suites of apartments were for business Certain spaces were deemed as very private spaces Very public spaces (reception rooms) o State Suites (for business) Second Alexander Room, North State Suit Big woven tapestry Rococo plaster work Alexander Room South State Suite o Wurzburg Staircase with Painting by Tiepolo Painted as if there is no ceiling Throwback to 17 century Tiepolo’s Four Continents The new world (America): represented by someone with a feathered headdress Asia Europe: represented as center of art and culture o The White Room (The Stucco Room) Done by Italian artist At the top of the staircase Reminiscent of French Rococo, but is more substantial/heavier o The Throne Room, Tiepolo Ceiling paintings Apollo bringing in a new day (common theme for palaces Scenes representing marriages of Frederick I and Beatrice of Burgundy o Wedding which took place in 16 century o To celebrate their great past days and celebrate idea of dynastic tradition Give legitimacy to this particular dynasty o Drapery done in stucco and covered in gilding and paint to create illusion of curtain being drawn o Wedding takes a mythological status Prussia - Antoine Pesne, Frederick the Great of Prussia, 1736 o Trained at the French academy and was lured away to Prussia o Frederick the Great One of the great leaders of Prussia who expanded Prussia Francephile: loved France Wanted French to be spoken at court, loved French art, etc. Great collector of art Watteau Paintings o 2 version of Pilgrimage to Cythera More putti, boat is bigger, friend is included in image, statue of Venus o The Shepherds o Signboard of Gersaint Housed his painting collection in Charlottenburg Palace, Near Berlin, 1695-1713 o Painting Emphasizing role of military leader Holding a baton of command (indicates he is the commander of the military) Armor - Nering, Charlottenburg Palace, Near Berlin, 1695-1713 o Painted exterior o Where Frederick the Great stored his art collection o Grand Gallery Arabesque work (gilding kind of crawling up the walls) No carved boiserie or insets into the walls Difference: use of pastel colors (blue) o Porcelain Room th Collecting porcelain was a great practice in the 18 century Many European countries established manufactures to replicate porcelain Most was imported from Asia Gold walls with blue and white porcelain Saxony - Hyacinthe Rigaud, Augustus II “the strong”, 1714 o In the French manner o Painting Wearing coronation robe Black servant wearing turban to indicate he is an exotic figure Wearing a sash that shows his membership in an honorary club o Augustus the strong Loved the middle ages Wanted to create a great expression of his grandeur in the town of Dresden - Mattias Poppelman, Zwinger, Dresden, 1711 o An enclosed space o Provided a setting for Augustus the strong’s jousts o Only part of an enormous project that he had planned o More of a stadium than a palace o Entry gate wearing almost a crown (suggests royalty) o Sculpture by Balthasar Permoser The whole enclosed space was covered by sculpture - Meissen Porcelain manufacture o Pompadour and Louis had established the Sevres to rival this Manufacture o Produced figurines and usable ware o Monkey Musicians Monkeys behaving like humans was really popular Made fun of human endeavors o Table settings Munich - Nymphenburg and Grounds o Grounds are very important (just like at Versailles) Very similar to Versailles with its grand canal o Not the main palace, but rather more of a country house Kind of a getaway o Lots of little Pavilions little houses/structures that are for parties not a place you would live at Francois Cuvillies, Amalienburg, 1730s Done by a Frenchman schooled in Paris Had a hunting theme to it (Rotunda) Hall of Mirrors, Amalienburg o Mirrors cost a lot of money and the process was very expensive o Panes of mirrors o Mirrors reflect windows on opposite side Help contribute to the lighting (during the day they would facilitate the illumination of the room) o Blue colored room with silver arabesque/filigree work that crawls up the wall Obscures architectural logic o Hunt theme o Furniture Made to match the room The Yellow Room o Hunting portraits of the Wittelspoch (dynastic family who reigned here) Holding guns Dogs o Niche bed with curtains (to keep the warmth in The Hunt Room o Covered in paintings commemorating specific hunts Dog Kennel room o Walls painted yellow with blue arabesque o Little niches for dogs The kitchen o Covered with glazed tiles The Chamber - Church of St. John Nepomuck, Munich o Designed by Cosmos Damian Asam and Egid Quirin Asam Spent their entire fortune in building this church o Built on very thin strip of land Church is about 70 feet wide o Big arch over entrance with image of St. John Nepomuk being carried into heavens Germans were very good at faux painting – making plaster look like another material (very much part of the aesthetic and very valued) o Interior, St. John Nepomuk, Munick, 1733 Ground floor was open to public Second story belonged as private space to the brothers Ceiling is painted in illusionistic painting Lots of faux painting on ground story Meant to overwhelm Full of violent and sensational effects Painted statue of Virgin Mary Polychrome Painting: Wooden, then covered with thin coat of plaster, then gauze laid over to create a surface for painting, then given a smooth varnish finish Virgin of Immaculate conception (standing on globe or moon) Standing on a snake (symbol of heresy) she is stamping out heresy Above her: painted plaster meant to imitate cloth Very busy – a lot to look at - Pilgrimage Churches o Built over an important site and contain a relic o Catholicism in Southern Germany (fervently Catholic), it was different than practiced in other Catholic countries Often at odds with the Roman Catholic church “Too superstitious” German Catholicism believed in miracles o You would take a pilgrimage to help remove your sins Could be for penance o Tend to be in rural settings o Balthasaer Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen (14 holies/saints), Near Staffelstien, 1743 “14 holies”/”14 saints” Designed by important architect Façade is an undulating 2 bell-tower façade Pierced by a lot of windows Looks like it is about to dissolve or fly away Plan is based on music theory (architect was musician) Ovals based on some musical formula Not really straight walls Wanted the pilgrims to feel as though they were in an otherworldly space that couldn’t be understood rationally Interior Shrine o Marks the sight of a miracle someone had a vision of 14 saints Scene framed by stucco drapery in one work of art German Bavarian Rococo style Profusion of ornament Faux paint High key pastels Unusual amount of ornament Visual overstimulation o Die Wies, 1746-54 Done by Dominikus Zimmerman Not an architect, but a mason It was traditional in Germany for architects to primarily be builders Worked on the church with his brother In the middle of a beautiful field Housed an image of Christ at the column being scourged/whipped Weird little doll/puppet that was revered Statue was made to be carried in a precession on Good Friday in the little town Church in Rome didn’t like that the people were “worshipping” the statue o Called for the statue to be cast out because it was too affecting (people would be very moved by the statue) o A pious woman rescued the statue and built a little “house” for it (many people came to visit it, and it became a sight for pilgrimages to see the statue Statue was surrounded by a whole mythology o Some said it once cried tears In 1745, the town collected funds to build the church Exterior: all about curves Proportions are very elongated Painted a very pretty pale yellow Trim and architectural elements painted white with a little darker, golden colored trim Plan Big oval space with paired columns Side walkway around oval space Interior A lot of the faux painting in pastel pink and white Small but filled with some special effects o Above: scene of the Cross being carried to the heavens o Cutouts above second story As you move down the space of the oval, at curtain points, they will frame paintings on the opposite wall that represent scenes from the life of Christ As you move, you get almost a kind of walking “movie” Moving through the space and the illusionistic effects were all part of the plans Ceiling painting above entrance o Designed almost as a reward for the pilgrims o Doorway as you enter the heavenly realm, and you see the scene of the Last Judgement Usually a scale and the deeds of your life are judged Not like any Last Judgement scene: happy ending, rainbow, Christ sliding in on the rainbow The world’s happiest last judgement Meant to be a very joyous occasion