lesson 11 notes: DNA = genetic information
lesson 11 notes: DNA = genetic information Biology 1105
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Babington on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1105 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Jonathan I. Watkinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
GENETICS EXPERIMENTS Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty = figured out that transformation involves DNA transferring between cells; Followed Griffith’s experiment but tested cellular components (if protein is the transforming principle, then the head killed S-strain cell extracts with protease will prevent R- strain from being transformed into the S-strain Hershey-chase experiment = figured out that DNA is the genetic material though the infection of phage bacteria; radioactive sulfur stayed in the supernatant GRIFFITH EXPERIMENT = Heated the S strain of virulent bacteria to denature the virus, injected into the mice = they lived Mixed the denatured S strain with a non-denatured R strain = mice died and had traces of living S strain HISTORY AND PEOPLE Maurice Wilkins/Rosalind Franklin found out through X-rays & diffraction studies that DNA was a double helix structure Now known via Watson and Crick: two nucleotide strands with complimentary base pairs, which gives the molecule a constant diameter (3.4 nanometers) DNA STRUCTURE Composed of nucleotides 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose Sugar phosphate groups make up the sides and backbone 4 nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine) PURINES = Adenine and guanine, longer/multiple ringed structures PYRIMIDINES = Cytosine and Thymine (Uracil in RNA), single ringed structure Phosphate group PO4 covalently attached to a 5’ carbon sugar Also has a hydroxyl group (-OH) covalently attached at the 3’ carbon of sugar Phosphodiester bonds (covalent bonds) link nucleotides between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the 3’ hydroxyl (-OH) group Chargaff’s rule: the proportion of purines (A & G) = the proportion of pyrimidines (C & T) o A=T, G=C, A+G =T+C (purines + pyrimidines), but A+T does not equal C+T MODELS OF DNA REPLICATION CONSERVATIVE= both strands of parent model remain intact SEMI-CONSERVATIVE= One strand of parent model remains intact (actual mode of replication) DISPERSIVE= parts of parental molecule are dispersed throughout
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