PY 370 Ch. 10 Notes
PY 370 Ch. 10 Notes PY 370
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Friday April 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sheila Black in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/03/15
Chapter 10 Functionalism at the University of Chicago and Columbia University 1 An American School of Thought a Functionalism the way in which the conscious mind adapts to the environment b John Dewey father of functionalism 2 John Dewey a Moved to the University of Chicago b The Re ex Arc i Problems with structuralism doesn t let you perceive what happens before and after ii Candle ame it is important that what happens before after happens when you touch candle ame You need to look at entire whole experience Not concerned with experiences but why the mind produces certain experiences c The School and Society d Dewey Annoys i Believed the task of education was not to pass on conventional knowledge ii Experimental learning emphasized iii Dewey s school eventually merged with the department of education e Dewey s later years i Dewey was one of the founding members of the first teachers union ii Established and organized American Association of University Professors iii Supported liberal causes ACLU and NAACP 3 Angell a Traveled to Germany and met Hermann von Helmholtz and Ebbinghaus b Dissertation accepted contingent upon being rewritten in better German c Never received PhD d Accepted a position at Univ of Chicago and became president of college 4 Angell and Maze Learning a Conducted a number of studies that focused on animal memory b He was the educational advisor of NBC 5 Woodworth Thorndike and Transfer a Interested in transfer of skill from one task to the next b Doctrine of formal discipline c Study Latin Greek and classical literature d Once the aforementioned disciplines were in shape the skills developed would transfer to other disciplines Found that the amount of transfer occurring was directly proportional to the number of elements shared by the tasks Woodward and Thorndike do not advocate the continuation of formal disciplinethere was no evidence that formal discipline would lead to better math or geography performance 6 Woodworth 9962 Known for his development of psychological tests Eclectic Involved with research investigating imageless thought Adopted some notions of behaviorism but that motivation was also important 7 Thorndike gangs Very shy Brilliant academically Found his psychology class dull but captivated by Iames book He entered Harvard and studied under Iames Thorndike Research i Iames argued that mind reading really the result of mind reader picking up cues from client ii Thorndike investigated this hypothesis with children rewarded them with candy if they could guess what he was thinking it didn t workand schools were suspicious of it Thorndike Animal Research i Started with chickens ii Landlady complained about chickens in the apartment iii Chickens placed in Iames home instead iv Chickens learned to escape their pen v Thorndike attributed their learning to the pleasure accompanying the desired result Thorndike leaves Harvard to go to Columbia i Accepted Cattell s offer of a graduate fellowship at Columbia ii He came to Columbia with 2 trained chickens iii Animals kept in apartment but neighbors and landlord complained iv Thorndike established an animal lab at Columbia Cats and Training i He used cats in his famous experiments ii Hungry cat placed in box and can only escape if it makes a specific response iii Trial and error iv Responses that are satisfiers strengthen response v Responses that are annoyers weaken response i The Law of Effect i Responses that produce satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situationquot j Cats Didn t Always Learn to Escape i Used crude box for experiments ii The likelihood of cats learning to escape depended upon the required response iii Cats became box wisequot iv Cats developed a mental set k Thorndike Critiqued i Supported Cattell and James ii Thorndike criticized for neglecting the work of previous investigators iii Thorndike had implied facetiously that Comparative Psychologists were insane I Were His Animal Studies Generalizable i Thorndike criticized for examining animal learning in artificial environment ii The animals might have been stressed and therefore unable to learn iii Criticized for his productivity iv Studied Cebus monkeys he kept in NY apartment m Educational Psychology i Interested in individual differences ii He did not believe in general intelligence iii He thought that abilities could vary across various types of intelligence iv He did believe in Eugenics v He did believe in tracking in public school system n Thorndike developed tests for applicants at a Tobacco Corp 0 He conducted survey of cities p Interested in word usage and frequency 8 Woodward Textbook Noted for his famous textbook of psychology In his textbook he used words such as Experimental Methodquot He mentioned IV and DV The distinguished between the experimental method and correlational research 9962
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