Lecture 10/11/16 Notes
Lecture 10/11/16 Notes History 190
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marina Rodriguez on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 190 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Melodie Andrews in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see United States to 1877 in History at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
History 190 Lecture 10/11/16 Hamilton’s Economic Program and Development of Political Parties Hamilton’s program sparks controversy and creation of political parties Hamilton thinks debt is the glue that holds the country together o Public debt is a public blessing 3 major goals for the program: o create financial aristocracy o make states economically dependent on central government o every important economic interest to be able to profit. All are required to pay fair share government is going to pay foreign debt at full face cost Hamilton’s program is going to pay security holders, but for a fraction Hamilton’s program pay speculators (private party) at full face value To pay the interest, he places taxes on whiskey, tax, wine, etc. Dec. 1790- issues 2nd report for a national bank National bank- loans to government and individuals, circulating median/official currency and county. Bank bill passed through congress Hamilton says bank is constitutional o Says built in, is implied powers Jefferson says bank isn’t essential Argument reaches the public Fundamental difference on how to interpret constitution by 1792 differences between Jefferson and Hamilton have become an open conflict out of said quarrel, the first political parties are coming out Washington is personally distressed over the situation o Thought it was terrible for future of the country o Wants to retire o Hamilton and Jefferson go to him saying he must run again o Unifying figure for the country Hamilton = broad construction, pro-British Jefferson = strict construction, pro-French Washington and International Crisis France declares war on Britain o French revolution French revolution is different because they kill the aristocrats Hamilton and his Federalists support Great Britain Washington wants to honor French alliance and open ports, but then U.S. would be pulled into it o Hamilton says King signed it, and now he’s dead so it’s void 2 o Jefferson says it was a treaty with the people that we must honor o Washington went with Hamilton’s idea Neutrality Proclamation: Washington issues it, saying U.S. is neutral British attack U.S. ships because they’re mad and denying neutral rights Impressment: the act of taking men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice. Washington sends John Jay to Europe to try and get some sort of treaty to open up trade Sends message that U.S. government has strength/authority o In N.W. territory, Natives have been supplied and refuse to leave o So, Washington sends military to N.W. and Natives are defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers Treaty of Greenville: Natives sign away all their land in the N.W. and have protection from U.S. government and get $10,000 worth of goods each year o Mostly gave alcohol U.S. faces crisis in Western Pennsylvania o Whiskey Rebellion: Hamilton put excised tax on whiskey o Farmers find it unfair because their grain goes into alcohol o Whiskey is traded/bartered in place of money o Taxes are put on producers not consumers 3 Federal troops are sent to suppress the internal (whiskey) rebellion for first time. Rebel’s mostly took off once they found out Washington and his 15,000 troops were coming Washington pardons the few rebels that were convicted for treason Jay’s Treaty: limited treaty, no formal statement of respecting rights. They did surrender N.W. ports and got little access to West Indies o Most important: we gave Great Britain the most favored status o Said we won’t have non-importation agreements Pinckey’s Treaty: Spain gave navigation rights to Mississippi to U.S., and acquired a small bit of West Florida John Adams Administration John Adam’s runs for president with Thomas Pinckey as vice president (Federalists) Antifederalists run Jefferson and Berg for office 12th Amendment: president and vice president candidates must run as a ticket Adams won presidency and Jefferson won V.P. Adams kept the country out of war He sent three guys over to negotiate with France Tallegrand- French foreign minister, in order to talk to him: o must pay a bribe o Adams make public apology o give them a loan 4 X-Y-Z Affair: makes agreement public, refers to the three guys as X, Y, and Z War hysteria against France is sweeping the country Alien and Sedition Acts: alien act raised it to 14 years until you become a resident of the U.S. authorizes president to expel/deport aliens that seem dangerous. Sedition act made it punishable by fine or jail if one aided in riot, spread malicious rumors/writings/publications, etc. against government o Sedition = unconstitutional o Real purpose = silence political opposition Kentucky and Virgina Resolutions: response of republicans to alien acts. Each state had the right to declare law void within own state if considered unconstitutional. Implied if government passed unconstitutional laws, state could leave the union. o written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison result of alien acts: engage in undeclared war with France on the high sea 1st time in U.S. history- declares direct taxation 5
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