Lecture 10/13/16 Notes
Lecture 10/13/16 Notes History 190
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marina Rodriguez on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 190 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Melodie Andrews in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see United States to 1877 in History at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
History 190 Lecture 10/13/16 John Adams Administration Cont. Midnight Appointments: Adams judicial appointments in the last few days of his term. o Most important = John Marshall Jefferson felt his election was the second revolution Jefferson turns to his secretary to figure out a way to get rid of the National Bank of the U.S. o Couldn’t get rid of it because it’s become essential to the economic system o Abolishes whiskey tax o Cuts down cost of government o Reduces national debt o Strengthens bank by opening new branches in the South Jefferson’s relationship with the judiciary o Judiciary was the weakest branch o John Marshall’s mission is to strengthen the power of the judiciary o 1803- Marshall uses case of Marbury vs Madison to declare acts of congress unconstitutional establishes judicial review- determines if something is constitutional Executive branch enforces decisions of supreme court o Too weak to defy president 1803- Britain and France are back to war Louisiana Purchase 1803: $15 million for over 800,000 acres o Adopts Hamilton’s idea of implied powers Use a broad interpretation of the constitution o Did this to buy it now, instead of waiting for an amendment saying it could be bought o Federalists oppose purchase for political reasons Lewis and Clark Expedition: sent by Jefferson to explore the newly purchased land Jefferson deals with threatening conditions in Europe during his second term Embargo Act- disaster o Loss of income o Triggers agricultural depression o One good thing- Americans start manufacturing their own stuff, instead of buying G.B.’s War Hawks: Die-hard group who support the war o Leaders = Clay, Calhoun, and Webster o Calhoun- leading defender/spokesman o Webster- leading voice in opposition to slavery o They press Madison to go to war Pro-war sentiment: centered around south, SW, and West. Anti-war sentiment: everywhere else Pushing for war to take advantage of it and expand the U.S. territory Madison declares war with Britain in 1812 Charter expired for the bank (allowed by war Hawks), so no central bank for the whole war 2 o Problem = how to make funds Madison’s 4 reasons of going to war o Impressment of sailors o British seizures of U.S. cargo o Britain blockades o British stirring up Natives Treaty of Ghent: Christmas eve of 1814 o Peace treaty o Didn’t address any of the 4 reasons o Put everything back the way it was before the war o Restored the status quo Battle of New Orleans: (after the war) decisive victory o Jackson and hodge-podge group defeated Britain at the ports of new Orleans o 2 important consequences: illusion of victory of the war sets stage for rise of Jackson (considered hero) Madison does: o Taxed imported goods for protection, not revenue to encourage people to buy U.S. goods o Reestablishment of Bank of the U.S. James Monroe and “Era of Good Feelings” Called the era of good feelings because federalists sort of disappear and there’s only one party- the Jeffersonian republicans 3 Monroe was last president who served in the continental army Cabinet: John Quincy Adams (Sec. of State), John C. Calhoun (Sec. of war) U.S. being flooded with European goods 1819- an economic depression, increases antagonism and tension between SW and NE o sectional tensions Missouri applies to congress for statehood o At the time- perfect balance of slave holder and free states o Wants to come into union with slaves o Causes Maine to apply as free state o Clay hammers out compromise Missouri Compromise of 1820: Maine comes in as a free state, Missouri comes in as a slave state o Everything north of the 36-30 line is free, south of it is slave territory Monroe doctrine: clear warning to England/Europe that no territory in north America can be established a colony by them and we won’t interfere in any of their affairs or colonies However we didn’t promise any other countries not to interfere with upcoming affairs U.S. is the only great resident power at the time Monroe re-elected in 1820 As he starts 2nd term, he becomes incapable of holding together the one political party 4