Cocaine FSC 440
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsey Smith on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSC 440 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Nesser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Drug Identification in Forensic Science at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
FSC 440- Drug Identification October 12 & 17, 2016 Cocaine CSA Schedule II Active Substance: Benzoylmethylecgonine Street Names: crack Psychophysical Actions: Stimulant Price: $10 per dime bag • A small bag is about .1-.2g • Sold in upwards of 8 Balls (3.5g) $60-80 • Price range depends on strength, purity, supply and demand Background • Tropane alkaloid that is obtained from coca leaves • It is a stimulant, appetite suppressant, and a sodium blocker • At higher doses it is one of the most dangerous CNS stimulants even more so than the amphetamine family due to the sodium blocker History • For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca, a plant with vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids • Used in many religious ceremonies and by females to reduce appetite, block pain, and for medicinal effects • Used in trepanation- the practice of drilling a small hole into the skull to release pressure and blood to reduce psychotic effects Isolation and Naming • Isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until 1855 • It was isolated from the plant into the alkaloid’s colorless transparent prisms • Very bitter taste • Increases saliva production and numbing sensation on area applied • First synthesis of the structure was in 1898 by Albert Niemann Medical Exploration and Use • With the isolation of the cocaine compound, there was a surge of medical research done especially for anesthetic pain blockers • In original formula for Coke “pinch of coca leaves” 1886 • 1879 cocaine was used to treat morphine addiction • 1882 Sigmund Freud published paper Uber Coca which references the effects on the human brain • 1882 Park-Davis sold cocaine in various forms such as cigarettes, powder and a mizture that could be injected intravenously, cocaine was a staple in scientific and medical research • During WWII cocaine was mixed into a pep till (D-IX) and was used to help solders to go longer on the field without having to stop for food and rest Prohibition • 1914 The Harrison Narcotics Act restrained the use of cocaine and narcotics to prescriptions through a doctor. o Left manufacturers of cocaine untouched so long as they met certain purity and labeling standards o The quantities of legal cocaine produced declined bery litter o This was very important since there had been a 5 time increase in use since 1890. o Associate mostly with laborers, youths, and the urban underworld because it increased productivity o Criminality was often looked at as a result of cocaine abuse • In 1906 all products containing cocaine had to have a label stating what was in the product and the purity through the Food and Drug Act • The Jones-Miller Act of 1922 put serious restrictions on cocaine manufacturers Product • The first synthesis of cocaine was accomplished by Richard Willsatter in 1898 • Synthetic cocaine is derived from tropinone Pharmacology • Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product • Altered cocaine ranges in color from white to pinkish to brown • It’s normally cut with another white substance like baking soda and sugars also has been known to be cut with lidocaine and benzocaine Forms: Salts, Freebase, Crack, Coca Leaf Infustions • Salt form: powder cocaine o Cocaine hydrochloride o Alkaloid that comes from the plant and can be mixed with acidic compounds to form salts. HCl is most common but sulfate and nitrate mixtures are occasionally seen o Easily dissolved with water o Generally snorted or taken in gum lines o More polar o Mixed with lidocaine and benzocaine to numb the route of ingestion and irritation o Problems: nasal passages down the back of throat into lungs are in jeopardy of damage, rotten teeth, deviated septum, heart at the most risk because cocaine blocks sodium absorption and if too much is blocked it will send individual into cardiac arrest • Freebase o Almost insoluble in water, aka non-polar o Base form of cocaine o Smoking freebase has additional effects of releasing methylecgonine into the user’s system o Freebase is more cardio toxic than the salt form o It is derived from the intermediate step between the transition of the salt to crack from of cocaine • Crack o Contains a lower purity of freebase cocaine produced from the neutralization of baking soda and water to create a very hard/brittle, off white to brown colored, amorphous material that contains impurities o Crack cocaine must be heated to be ingested via inhalation of vapors and makes a crackling sound. Undergoes little decomposition until 98° C and is known to have a pleasant taste (the powder will not vaporize until 197° C) o Smoking cocaine produces an almost immediate high called a rush but it does not last very long; however, the stimulating effects continue. Chasing another rush the user will take more in a short period of time • Coca Leaf Infusions o The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift o There is no significant numbness or a rush o Not as popular due to lack of intense effects o The cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine can be detected in urine of an individual a few hours after consuming one cup Route of Administration • Oral- rub cocaine HCl on gums and mouth will produce saliva to dissolve into mucus membrane o Snow bomb- wrap cocaine in parchment paper and swallow it • Insufflation- snorting o Most popular route of cocaine HCl o Coats the inside of nasal passages and mucus membranes that line the sinus cavities o 30% of what is snorted is absorbed through the mucus membrane while the remainder is flushed down to the stomach o This causes significant nasal damage resulting in nose bleeds from the irriatation of the acid which produces blisters o Vasoconstrictor o If the powder is not cut into small enough pieces, the chunks will not absorb properly Other Routes • Injection of Crack Cocaine- most efficient because the drug is pumped directly into the bloodstream, there is less chance of losing the full amount of the drug, produces a constant ringing in the ears known as tinnitus, peak effects 3 minutes after injection and can last for hours o Risks: the products the cocaine is cut with can cause circulatory embolisms and blockages in blood vessels o Mixing crack and heroine is known as a speed ball and is the most dangerous of drug combinations • Inhalation: popular to inhale the vapors, it is heated in a small glass tube where there is a port to inhale the vapor as it comes out o The effects produced are almost immediate and lasts 5-15 minutes o However, lots of the product can be lost to the atmosphere and left over in the pipe Mechanism • The blockade of the dopamine transporter protein of the CNS has been extensively studied • The decreased dopamine levels leads to depressive mood disorders and sensitize this important brain reward circuit to the reinforcing effects of cocaine • This sensitization contributes to the intractable nature of addiction and relapse Metabolism • Extensively metabolized by the liver • Approximately 1% is excreted unchanged in urine • Benzylecgonine can be detected in urine as soon as 4 hours but as long as up to 8 days. This metabolite can also be detected in hair growth Excretion • Detection of the drug depends on liver and kidney function • Coca ethylene- the use of cocaine and alcohol simultaneously- is very dangerous because the sodium receptors are blocked and the CNS is being depressed Detection • Immunoassays are popular screening tools • Concentrations can be found in blood, plasma, urine • Chromatographic testing will easily distinguish compound and give concentration • Chronic users will build up a tolerance so when quantitatively analyzing cocaine in an individual’s system be sure to take the user’s history into account • Can be used to determine passive or active abuse Medical Use • Topical eye anesthetic and nasal surgery o Helpful in eye surgery because it constricts the blood vessels and numbs the eye while keeping the individual lucid • Prevents excessive bleeding in surgery • High risk of too high of a dose which would over constrict and lead to undesirable effects • An individual can get addicted to cocaine just from one procedure Effects • Powerful stimulant to the nervous system • Effects can last from 15-30 minutes • Bitter to taste due to HCl or sweet to taste due to crack • Causes a numb feeling, increases alertness, feelings of well-being, euphoria, anxiety, tremors, energy • Can cause severe cardiac events Acute Effects • Long term users will experience itching of skin and redness, tachycardia, hallucinations, paranoid delusions, hyperthermia, extreme elevation of blood pressure, depression with suicidal intentions Chronic Effects • Strong imbalance of transmitter levels • Abstinence of drug may regain normal levels but not likely for long term users • Causes insatiable hunger, aches, insomnia, lethargy, and persistent runny nose, development of autoimmune diseases such as lupus, and kidney diseases Withdrawal • Physical withdrawal is not dangerous • The physiological changes caused by cocaine withdrawal will include: vivid and unpleasant dreams, insomnia, increased appetite, psychomotor retardation, agitation Population Usage • Spain has the highest percentage of cocaine usage • Cocaine is the second most popular illicit recreational drug in the US • Commonly used by the middle to upper class and is known as the rich mans drug • Became popular in the US during the age of disco Trade and Production • Cocaine is treated as a hard drug because the need and amount rapidly develop with severe penalties for possession and trafficking • Unprocessed versus processed cocaine carries differing penalties • Can be very expensive due to demand and geographic location
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