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Week 9

by: Aunjela Latham

Week 9 Public health 2000

Aunjela Latham

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About this Document

These are the beginning notes of infant mortality notes
Intro to public health
Heather Harmon
Class Notes
causes, birth, defects, smoking, drinking, womenshealth, Cleveland, preventions, imr, Risk, factors
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aunjela Latham on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Public health 2000 at Ohio University taught by Heather Harmon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 10/18/16
Infant Health Part 1 - United states is number one in infant dates of industrialized nations Ohio’s Ranking 45-46 - Overall 6.8 Infant's death per 1000 live births - White 5.3 ( was 6.0) Infant deaths per 1,000 live births - Black 14.3 (was 13.8) Infant death per 1,000 live births National Rates - All races 6.0 per 1,000 - Whites 5.1 per 1,000 - Black 11.2 per 1,000 Number of infant deaths in Ohio - Whites 568 in 2014 (total population approx. 9.5 million) - Blacks 344 in 2014 ( total population approx. 1.5 million) Point to Ponder: Why is the health of infants of children of special concern for public health ? - Something we are missing - Poverty - Adults need to go to the doctors - Future generation - Lead to other health problems - Costly Importance of Infant and Child Health - Foundation of health throughout life - Children are most vulnerable group in society - Infant Mortality rate (IMR) is an indicator of health status of population (will be on exam) - U.S ranks 56th ( was 555th) internationally; does compare to some third world countries - IMR higher for blacks than whites- indicator of health disparity Facts to remember: Only country that does not offer health care nationally while other countries do. The united states 5.8 deaths per million ranked 169 in the world Better technology and health care than most countries Healthcare is what it will always come back to What social changes have occurred to improve infant mortality? - Medicine development - WIC - Women Infant Children - Information to people - knowledge. - Vaccinations - Antibiotics - Clean water - Sanitation - Better nutrition - Better housing - Betterjobs - socioeconomic status (improved) - Pasteurized milk - Prenatal care and delivery methods - Terms to Know ( handout is coming) Infant Death Infant Mortality Neonatal mortality rate Post neonatal mortality rate Preterm birth Childhood mortality Causes of Infant Mortality U.S - Leading causes of death on 2013 - #1 cause- birth defects - Premature birth ( before 37 weeks) - Maternal complications of pregnancy ( diseases of the heart, stroke, high blood pressure,etc.) - Low birth weight - SIDS or SUIDS - Infant Death Syndrome - 2012- 3,434 babies dies suddenly and unexpectedly - Injuries ( suffocation, car accidents, etc) Reasons and Risk Factor for Low Birth Rate - premature birth before 37 weeks - Fetal growth restrictions - Birth defects - Infections - Smoking, drinking alcohol, using street drugs and abusing prescription drugs - Pregnant women who smoke are nearly twice as likely to have a low-birth baby than women who don’t smoke. - Having little education, low income or being unemployed - Racism may be linked - Multiple births due to iVF and other fertility methods - Young age (15 years and younger) and older age women (42 and older) Health Risk Later in Life - Diabetes - Heart Disease - High Blood Pressure - Metabolic syndrome. This is caused when you have high blood pressure, diabetes and heart diseases and heart disease all together. - Obesity First Day Infant Death - Highest first day infant death rate of industrialized nations Risk Factors: - Poverty and racism - Teen Pregnancy- U.S has highest teen pregnancy rates in the industrialized world. - Unintended pregnancy- half of all pregnancies are unintended. Social Factors - Number one risk factor is poverty - Reasons why low SES increase risk - Environmental hazards - Poor nutrition - Maternal risk behaviors- smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs. - Social factors- young maternal age,violence,stress and lack of social support as well as prenatal care. Preventing Birth Defects - Genetic and newborn screening - FDA regulation of teratogenic drugs ex: accutane for acne - Warnings against alcohol for pregnant women - Immunization of all children against rubella protects infants - Dietary supplementation with folic acids - Folic acid is leading cause of spina bifida Healthy Pregnancy -pregnancy- related health outcomes are influenced by factors such as -race - Ethnicity -age -income and socioeconomic status -most importantly a women’s health Healthy Pregnancy e=means healthy behavior prior to conception - Taking folic acid - Maintaining a healthy weight and diet - Physically active - Quitting tobacco use - Not drinking excessively or using street drugs - Talking to your health provider about screening and proper management chronic diseases - Visiting your health care provider at the recommended scheduled time periods for your age and discuss if or when you are considering becoming pregnant - Using effective contraception correctly


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