Public Communication and Controversy, week 1 and 2
Public Communication and Controversy, week 1 and 2 COMM 223A
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Notetaker on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 223A at DePauw University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Public Comm&Controversy in Communication at DePauw University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
PC&C 8/31/16 p. 33 600 BCE-Athens -democracy started here -2 primary developments 1)court systems-(previously done in ruling clans, wealthy family, corrupt) -charged in court or need to take someone to court you need to defend yourself thus you need public speaking 2)public elections-to be a citizen of Athens, you need to get up and speak before the POLIS (public/place) =as a result of both of these public speaking is a need that wasn’t before -schools are created and led by the Sophosts (basically public speaking teachers) ->were not born and raised in Athens ex. Gorgias, Protagorus ->to be a citizen you have to be born there, so these guys are called Metics (not citizens but of high class) -but cannot talk about government -they would write about smaller things vs Plato’s school= The Academy -founding of philosophy -most of what we know about the Sophosts is from Plato (bec theyw ere burned) DISSOI LOGOI- discourse that sets up a distinction between rhetoric (soph) and philosophy(Plato) 1)Does Truth exist? -Plato:Yes (There is a correct form for everything that exist in the world) (god vs world) -> Myth of chariot.. -Sophists- ? but they wouldn’t say no 2) Can Truth be known? -Plato: Yes, but it is really really really hard and the process of truth is remembering (Philosophers are really the ones who know the truth, that’s him) -Soph: ? 3) Can Truth be communicated? -Plato: Yes, but only certain people can communicate (philosophers) and some people cant hear it and that makes it hard to communicate and that’s why rhetoric is formed. Rhetoric is useful but only when the speaker knows the absolute Truth (very limited group who can speak) -Soph: ? ->Quintillian says “man is the measure of all things” -this sums up all things -they don’t believe in the gods -absolute truth cannot be the basis in the way we make all decisions -Dixa=consensus, agree ->Plato sees them as deceptive Aristotle-The Rhetoric -studies under Plato -teaching student at the Academy -students take notes on his lecture and form the book “The Rhetoric” ->def of rhetoric is the art of persuasion -> its an art because it is in all subjects, ->persuasion and rhetoric mean same things -> 3 Big books 1)unessential-book 2 and 3(style and delivery) 2)essential-more about content of rhetoric, calls the content “proofs” >inartistic: you didn’t invent but found (testimony, laws that already pre exist, torture, stuff you find) >artistic: 3 primary artistic proofs 1)Ethos-credibility as viewed from audience, honesty, goodwill 2)Pathos-appealing to emotion 3)Logos-arguments, inductive and deductive PAGE 51/59 Nature of Language KENNETH BURKE-rhetorical critic -born in 1896, studied at Columbia then dropped out -wants to be a fiction writer but he cannot get published and becomes a critic -predicts the Holocaust in 1933 based of Mein Kempf -symbolic interactionist-sociocultural approach, p. 59 -definition of man: Man or people is the symbol using, symbol making, and symbol misusing animal, inventor of the negative, separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making, goaded by hierarchy and moved by order, and rotten with perfection. ->symbol is how words function, Burke thinks man made symbols ->Burke thinks this is what separates us from other animals, we engage with symbols, we have this complex symbol system ->concept of the negative as a social construction of reality ->absence requires human perception? THEORIES OF PERSUASION 1. Stimulus Response-early formulation that tries to engage the behaviors we do, unconscious type of thinking, presented with a stimulues and that stimulus impacts how you respond a. Ex. Baby Albert-Watson b. Passive Understanding c. Prestige d. Social suggestion e. Universal common places (values) 2. Inoculation a. Ex. DARE, Korean war, I pad air b. Counter balance before message is introduced c. Name is McGuire who came up with this: during Korean war d. Counterbalance to forth coming persuasion e. Threat introduce a persuasive argument that people don’t want to buy into, you hear the message and reject it f. Post hoc reputation-counter balance, after the fact g. Warns us of upcoming persuasion-any drug commercial 3. Identification p.164 a. Kenneth Burke b. Notion on identification, (born alone die alone) i. Use symbols ii. Most basic human desire iii. Form of rhetoric c. Types of Identification i. Overt identification- I am just like you 1. Bill Cinton example and Bush ii. “Assumed we” 1. Obama’s speech 2. People feeling associated with you by saying we, everyone iii. Association-like same thing, common like, positive connections 1. George Bush Video-associating himself with all the good presidents, images of triumph (condensation symbols-the patriotic images) iv. Dissociation- disassociate from people dislike 1. Johnson Daisy ad, nobody likes a nuclear war but Johnson will be a peace advocate 2. Rick Perry-dissociation and association, don’t want to be associated with politicians so they disassociate from them v. Scapegoating: common enemy, hate something they hate 1. Trump-identifying immigrants as rapists and common enemy 2. Hitler 4. Consistency Theories (in belief, attitude, or opinion) i. About your own psychology and each individuals’ own consistency ii. Hard theory to prove, very difficult iii. We as human beings feel psych comfortable if everyone’s beliefs are similar iv. We can have a conflict between a source and message v. As well as conflict between attitudes 1. Pro life and death penalty vi. Then conflict between attitude and behaviors-easier to find 1. Anti-drug, drinking, vitamins 5. Social Judgement theory (diagram in book) i. Comes out of the 50s ii. Generic theory-vary from person to person iii. We all as individuals already have established beliefs and attitudes, current (anchor beliefs) 1. These become reference points for all beliefs taken in 2. Anchor beliefs are also schemas iv. Then there are 3 reactions to new message based off of anchor 1. Latitude of Acceptance-makes sense 2. Latitude of Rejection- contrasts with anchor beliefs 3. Latitude of Non-commitment-In the middle, don’t really care, if trying to persuade someone new this is the best place to “hit” v. Ego involvement (care) 1. Stronger your ego the stronger your anchor belief 2. High ego involvement is typically harder to persuade vi. Issues of perception 1. Assimilation effect a. Message that fall in LA b. Feel stronger than they are 2. Contrast Effect a. Messages that fell into LR b. Feel weaker 6. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) p.150 a. Processing info in brain as you hear it b. This is about complexity c. 2 things can happen i. Peripheral Processing-extra, we don’t think very much about these messages, often accept these on face value, not much thought, expert witness (identification) ii. Central Processing- really have to think about, new dimensions, more persuasive, more I think, the more the message sticks, diagrams, texts, a lot of description, pictures of science d. Factor for determining processing i. The higher the motivation to the product the more central ii. Ability
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