HST 121: Weeks 3 and 4
HST 121: Weeks 3 and 4 HST 121
Popular in Global History to 1750
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany Marsfelder on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HST 121 at Syracuse University taught by George Kallander in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Global History to 1750 in History at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
August 31, 2016 - September 9, 2016 HST 121 – Professor Kallander Lecture: The Nomadic Frontier: The Islamic World, Byzantium, China The Islamic World o Nomadic people Animals, horses, weapons, help, fire o Focus Questions How did the Islamic world deal with steppeland neighbors? What strengths did the Turks bring to the Islamic world? What was the nature of the Crusades and its consequences? o Sects of Islam Shite (shee-ite) – believe power is hereditary from Mohammad’s daughter Fatimah (“capital” was Cairo) Suni (soo-nee) – the prophet Mohammad’s first kalif (spiritual leader of Islam) was his father-in-law (“capital” was Baghdad) Spanish Islam All of them want to be the kalif All share (similarities): Qu’ran, pilgrimage to Mecca, Arabic, belief in Mohammad, mutual understanding Islam is the most far-reaching, widespread, global religion in the 11 century. Was spread by books/education. o Pilgrims Pride, respect, economic/military/religious power o Threats to Islamic World Christian states in Europe Steppelanders/Turks from Central Asia Turks adopted Islam instead of threatening it Expansion of Islam via the Turks Central Asia and North Africa No written languages, no permanent settlement, different way of life: Islamic World felt threatened We don’t know much about them/why they did what they did; we know them as conquerors and our impression of them is colored by the notion of ‘savagery’ and them as an ‘Army of God’ However, they convert to Islam, which “absorbed” the Turks o Europe, in contrast, tried to fight off or interact with their steppeland invaders/nomads, as did China o Hungary and Bulgaria are the only two nations who “absorbed” their steppeland invaders and made them assimilate. The Islamic Empire o Why did the Turks get incorporated? Character of empire Islam as a universal religion Jihad appealed to warrior culture The Empire was a melting pot Arabs were a minority early in history Well practiced tolerance for new converts With the Crusades, disharmony between religions starts European Reaction Long isolated from the rest of Eurasia, developed a siege mentality (Western) th Did incorporate two groups of nomadic raiders by 10 century) Magyars and Vikings) Focused on outward expansion and conquest, especially into Islamic world and into Slavic lands o Crusades, 10 -11 centuries Western perspective: a really big thing/deal Islamic perspective: small nuisance Who/what were the Crusades/Crusaders? Pilgrimage to Jerusalem in search of salvation “Violence in the name of Christian faith”, especially targeting Islam Crusades of 1090s o Mediterranean expansion th o Zangi (Turkish leader) – mid-12 century Pillar of Faith Jihad o Sahladin (Kurdish leader), 1198 Jerusalem falls Shites pushed out of Cairo, forced to Iran o Propaganda – Palestine must be taken back by Christendom, leaders provided funds and endorsement o Expansion of Turks ended harmony between Christians and Muslims o Crusade Consequences Legacy of Jihad Less harmony between religious communities Animosity toward Jewish, who were vilified China, ca. 1000-1200 o What were imperial developments in Song China? o How did Song China deal with northern barbarians? o Why do nomads and settled peoples tend to be enemies? Civilizations differ, so both feel threatened, but mostly they got along/traded for resources o Who had the largest economies pre-Industrial Revolution? China and India: important and suggest why they could not be invaded o Most invaders of China stayed and became Chinese; except the Mongols o Song Dynasty China (960-1279) Importance of China, past and present Golden age Dynastic cycle, rise and fall of Chinese states Mandate of Heaven – the right to rule and to be the son of Heaven, father to the people Confucian/didactic view of history Koryo Korea (936-1392) th th China of the past smaller than China of today (especially in the 17 and 18 centuries) Powerful neighbors o Importance of the Song Dynasty Importance of agriculture Social hierarchy: peasants, Confucian aristocracy, scholars, bureaucrats, military Weak military in favor of art, education, and philosophy Schools Changes in previous periods help stabilize the Song Dynasty Taxes now paid in cash Grains to cash No more conscription, as it was switched to another form of tax o Agricultural Developments More easily-ripening rice: 2x crop Water control/dams, levies More fertilized New crops Tea more widespread; cotton Irregular benefits Some profited more, some less, some landless peasants working for landlords o Scholar-Gentry Class Typical scholar family had one member who had passed Confucian civil service exams These families would become much more important later, as the civil service exam determined status o Commercial Developments Development of Yangtze River basin Rice products, rice as tax o More Technology Coal and Smelting Tools, weapons o Printing Developments Woodblock prints Abacus, gunpowder, and textiles o Song Culture Strong economy, schools Among officials and gentry in countryside Songs as peak of traditional culture Song porcelain made pottery from East Asia (and Koryo Korea) o Zho Xi (1130-1200) Developed Neo-Confucianism White Deer Grotto Academy Orthodox learning in Song Dynasty and rest of East Asia “Great Ultimate Principle (li)” Neo-Confucianism contributed to social and political stability September 12, 2016 – September 14, 2016 HST 121: Professor Kallander Lecture: The World the Mongols Made Comings and goings of people, technology Great Wall was built by China against the nomadic invaders and Mongols; for Chinese, symbolize the greatness of civilization “No more walls”; religion, economic, technology, metaphorical, symbolic, geographical to facilitate cooperation Temujin/Genghis Khan (r. 1206-1327), unites Mongol tribes (Chinggis Khaan) o What he did/created 800 years ago had vast impacts on Eurasian/modern history Religious pluralism and harmony to ensure peace/prosperity, though felt their own was superior Only consequence? Submit freely and fully! Does not create something new but perfects it Was not royal, but common; begins to organize, learn warfare, gathers blood ties w/ charisma and strong personality Wins over or defeats neighboring tribes under one name; the Mongols. Gives foreigners positions of power/authority Gets rid of clans/smaller ties Declares mission: rule over “sea of grass”, unify the world Needed to distribute wealth between every family and person Dies after defeating Manchurian dynasty and fell off his horse while hunting Sons able to carry on empire Rise of the Mongols o Nomadism: Mongols, Xiongnu (Huns), Turks Steppe/sea of grass Pastoralism, trade, raiding Self-sufficiency yet interaction with sedentary world Plurality of religious practice Ideas of Great Khan Perhaps diminishing pasture land reason for expansion Mongol Conquests (1206-1258) o Massive army invaded places that have never been invaded before o Conquest from Korea to Hungary, Moscow to Baghdad, except amphibious warfare New tech, adaptation Horse and the bow; Mongols would feign retreat Weapons far superior Whistling arrows Siege technology Use of terror and propaganda Kill 99 and save 1, release to tell other towns Approx. 250,000 Mongols o Khanates Chaghadai (Central Asia) Golden Horde (Russia) Persia Il-Khanate (Persia) Yuan Dynasty (China) Use of local elites Tax farming Mongol rulers tended to focus on feasting, hunting, and internal disputes rather than day-to-day government, which was left to local elites Fracturing o Mongol defeat (1274-1281) when tried to invade Japan o Ger – Russian yurt, where all Mongols lived Mongol Campaigns o Berke (r. 1257-1266): Golden Horde in Russia Russia conquered, lasting consequences o Khan’s Grandsons Khubilai (r. 1260-1294): Yuan Dynasty in China All of China conquered by 1279 Hulagu (r. 1256-1265): Il Khanate in Middle East, Persia Monke, Great Khan (d.1260) o Youngest son of Genghis o Everything begins to come apart Mamluks in Egypt defeat Mongols, Battle of Ain Jalut (1260) o First time the Mongols were defeated, in the same spot as where David and Goliath fought o Mongols look unstoppable, plan to invade Egypt and Saudi Arabia, the heart of the Islamic world However, Great Khan Monke dies, and everything grinds to a halt, as campaigns had to stop to elect new Great Khan Dissent Leader of the Golden Horde will not allow Khubilai Khan to become Great Khan Golden Horde and Hulagu goes to war over territory and leadership Khubilai attempted to invade Vietnam, Java, Japan, but failed Mongol Impact, 1300s and beyond o United people in trade with safe trade routes o First “credit card” o Pony express o Movement of people, technology, science/chemistry o Modern world begins to emerge o World’s largest zone for freedom of religion o Destruction Central Asia desertification Afghanistan Used to be very fertile Medieval Burma Russia Language Tartar sauce story