Development Psyc 2010
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Notetaker on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Development Prenatal Development -Conception -1 egg and 1 sperm join to form one cell -Zygote- A fertilized egg with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote turns into an embryo -At 9 weeks, an embryo turns into a fetus Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter to placenta and harm the developing fetus -At birth, most brain cells are present. After birth the neural networks multiply resulting in increased physical and mental abilities -Newborns are born with different reflexes and different types of cries -The development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence- called maturation Physical Development -Sitting- 6 months -Crawling- 8/9 months -Beginning to walk- 12 months -Walking Independently- 15 months Cognitive Development -Cognitive development is influenced by our biological make up and our environment, as well as the errors we make -Schemas- “mental molds” that help make sense of our experiences -Assimilation involved incorporating new experiences into our current understanding -Accommodation is the process of adjusting a schema and modifying it Piaget’s Stage of Development -Sensorimotor Stage -In this stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence Sensorimotor Criticism -Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think- they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas -Recent research shows that children in this stage can think and count Preoperational Stage -The second stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development. This stage begins around age two as children start to talks and last until approximately age seven. During this stage, children begin to engage in symbolic play and learn to manipulate symbols. Preoperational stage Criticism -Children as young as 3 have a harder time looking at things not through their own perspective -Egocentrism- Can’t perceive things from another’s point of view Concrete Operational Stage -Given concrete materials, 6 to 7 year old grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back and forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities Formal Operational Stage -At around 12 years old, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason Piaget’s Stage of Cognitive Development -Birth- 2 years- Sensorimotor- Experiencing the world through senses and actions -Object Permanence -Stranger Anxiety -2 years- 6/7 years- Preoperational- Representing things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning -Pretend Play -Egocentrism -7/11 years- Concrete Operational- Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations -Conservation -Mathematical Transformations -12- Adulthood- Formal Operational- Abstract reasoning -Abstract logic -Abstract reasoning -Potential for moral reasoning What we know now that Piaget didn’t? -Development is a continuous process -Children express theory mental abilities and operations at an earlier age -Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition Lev Vygotsky -By age 7, increasingly use words to think and learn -Rely on inner speech -Emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the social environment -Scaffolding- Teaching new words right above what the child already knows, helps the child move to higher levels Attachment -Harlow’s Monkeys -Mary Ainsworth -Secure -Insecure -Avoidant -Anxious Ambivalent -What happens when someone is deprived of attachment? -Withdrawn, frightened, unable to develop speech Parenting Styles -Authoritative; emanding, but caring, good child-parent communication -Authoritarian; ssertion of parental power without warmth -Indulgent; Warm toward child, but lax in setting limits -Neglecting; I ndifferent and uninvolved with child Adolescence -Begins at puberty -11 girls, 13 boys -Egocentrism; Imaginary audience; personal fable -Primary and secondary sex characteristics develop -Neural connects increase until puberty and the pruning begins to take place Developing Morality -Kohlberg- Development of moral reasoning stages Should a person steal medicine to save a loved one’s life? 3 Basic Levels of Morality -Preconventional Morality; Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward -Conventional Morality; By early adolescence social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake -Post Conventional Morality; Affirms people’s agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethics or principles Parent and Peer Influence Forming an Identity Becoming Independent Relating to parents Peer approval Emerging Adulthood -18-25 years old -College, work, leaving ome, average age of marriage- mid 20s -Difficult to break down in stages of development -Peak of physical development- 20 years old Middle Adulthood -Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities and cardiac output begin to decline after the mid twenties -Around age 50, women go through menopause and men experience decreased levels of hormones and fertility Marriage and Family -Most people parry or have a family union -High expectations for marriage -Successful marriage -Emotional closeness -Positive communication (Gottman; 5-1 ration for marriages to be successful) -Agreement on basic values and expectations -Willingness to accept and support changes in partner -Happier, live longer, and subjective well-being higher than unmarried adult -Midlife crisis- myth- not age but circumstance -Commitments -Love; one person at a time -Divorce Rate -Work Well Being Across the Lifespan -Well being and people’s feelings of satisfaction are stable across the lifespan The Aging Body -Potential lifespan for the human body is est to be about 122 years