HIST 201 Chapter 8 Textbook Notes
HIST 201 Chapter 8 Textbook Notes History 202
Popular in United states history since 1865
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elly Notetaker on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Gregory Domber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see United states history since 1865 in History at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Chapter 8 Reading Notes: A New Nation Facing a Revolutionary World The United States in the Age of the French Revolution The New Nation and the Revolution Initially Americans believed that the 1789 French Revolution was linked to American Revolutionary ideals Most Americans supported the French Revolution in its early stages o Showed enthusiasm by wearing French clothing and celebrating military victories However, events soon weakened U.S. support o Execution of the royal family in 1793 o Imprisonment of leaders beloved by Americans o France’s bid to spread revolutionary republicanism through warfare Divided the U.S. opinion o To some, the French seemed to endorse a dangerous excess of equality and democracy o Others such as Jefferson, continued to view France as a beacon of liberty French based their revolution on American liberty The Rise of Party Tensions U.S. electoral college met for the first time in February 1789 and unanimously chose George Washington as president However, the cabinet and Congress remained divided o Congress was dominated by merchants, lawyers, and gentlemen who had been strong supporters of the new Constitution o Introduced the Bill of Rights Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton opposed one another o They headed political factions during the 1790’s creating the first political parties in American history – the Federalists and the Democratic Republicans Federalists, led by Hamilton, favored the use of federal power, greater taxation, and keeping direct political power in the hand of educated elites o Also thought the U.S. should restore relations with British o Critical of French Revolution Democratic Republicans, led by Jefferson and Madison, favored the French o Farming as the base of ideal developing economy o Democratic policies should include the participation of nonelite white men, especially farmers and artisans Two parties possessed different interpretation of the consequences of the American Revolution – clashes over how power government power ought to be used Federalists: American “liberty” and Democratic Republicans: democratic “liberty” Each party also built up support among the populations Hamilton wanted to encourage economic development by wielding federal power that the DR opposed Open about their mutual opposition Neutrality and Jay’s Treaty President Washington tried to remain neutral February 1793, he grew increasingly concerned that the U.S. was getting too involved in France’s new revolutionary wars. Issued a Proclamation of Neutrality in the European wars o Aimed to keep open U.S. ships’ trading rights with Britain, France, and their Caribbean colonies British began to kidnap American ships and vessels Jay’s Treaty which granted the U.S. trade rights on the Mississippi, in the British East Indies, and at western forts The Popular Politics of Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion: in western Pennsylvania prompted Washington to assert federal power using military force o Hamilton led 15,000 militarized troops into Pennsylvania in September o Troops avoided widespread violence widespread violence but arrested several leaders of the rebellion Washington blamed the D.R. for the unrest saying that they had encouraged protests Revealed deep disagreement over the proper exercise of federal power Indian Warfare and European Power Federal power was also contested in Western conflicts between settlers and Indians who were trying to navigate between U.S. citizens and traditional European enemies Washington sent the small U.S. army to pacify clashes in Ohio country General Josiah Harmar attacked Miami Town, an Indian-British trade hub Miami warrior Little Turtle surprised and inflicted a crushing defeat that cost Harmar his job 1794 “Mad” Anthony Wayne, sent to fight against Shawnee and Miami o Exploited Indian disagreements Spanish sought tot reduce tensions with the U.S. 1795 they agreed to a new treaty Pinckney’s Treaty: opened Mississippi River trade to the U.S., provided free tax markets in New Orleans, settled French border issues, and guaranteed Spanish help against west Indians who wanted to block the U.S. settlers from expanding west Party Conflict Intensifies Adams in Power John Adams won the presidential election of 1797 and Thomas Jefferson became Vice President The president and vice president led opposing political parties showed how the parties were not yet solidly organized Adams had to navigate between Jefferson’s democratic party and Hamilton’s conservative party Federalists had a slim majority in Congress and moved to quickly fill federal judiciary Adams handled crises well, but never matched Washington’s popularity John and Abigail were the first presidential couple to take up residence in the White House Quasi-War with France President Adams faced pressure to declare war on France Pursued a balancing act of nonaggression throughout his term British continued to harass U.S. traders and tensions rose Adams sent Elbridge Gerry and John Marshall to join Pinckney to France French were openly hostile to the Americans when they arrived Became known as the “The XYZ Affair” – humiliated Americans Adams managed to avoid all-out war, but faced criticism from political opponents and from fellow Federalists, who thought he was weak on France Alien and Sedition Acts Adams was less successful at balancing domestic political tensions during the Quasi-War with France Believing he had public support, he passed a series of Alien and Sedition Acts o Aggravated political and social conflicts around the country o Severely restricted immigration into the U.S. and gave presidential power to deport anyone thought to be dangerous o Imposed steep fines and prison sentences for anyone found to be conspiring against the U.S. o Targeted Democratic Republicans who found support from immigrants Slave Rebellions: Saint Domingue and Virginia Anxieties among American elites increased due to revolutionary upheaval – especially in the form of slave revolts 1791 in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) revolted against their masters, whom they drastically outnumbered Rebel slaves joined forces with Spanish army forces to fight French colonial government on the island Led by Toussaint Louverture The “Revolution” of 1800 and the Revolution of 1804 Jefferson Elected Jefferson and Adams held opposite political opinions Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied with 73 votes and Adams received 65 Jefferson became President and Burr was elected Vice President Democracy: Limits and Conflicts As they transitioned into power, the DR wished to erase Federalist influence in politics: the use of centralized power, the turn toward Britain, the public debt, and the excise taxes DR believed in a democracy built on the power of free, white, property- holding men, they limited the political voice of women and free African Americans Marbury vs. Madison: landmark case in 1803 that established “judicial review” The divide between the parties in the U.S. remained bitter Haitian Revolution Most white Americans were shocked as slave rebellion and colonial unrest in Saint- Domingue spread into a national revolution by 1804 Haiti declared its independence from France in terms familiar to the American Revolution, but did not receive U.S. government support French planned to reimpose slavery if they could control Saint Domingue Jean-Jacques Dessalines, another former slave and skilled military commander, took over leadership of the black revolt o He expelled French troops and declared Haitian independence The new Haitian republic found little support with Jefferson White politicians were concerned that American slaves would be encouraged The Louisiana Purchase Jefferson exercised great authority in expanding the territory of the U.S. In October 1800 Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain secretly ceded the entire Louisiana territory, including New Orleans, back to France Jefferson believed that development of land by American small farmers held the key to the country’s future and wanted to prevent Napoleon from pursuing an empire in North America Napoleon was preoccupied with troubles in Haiti and offered to sell the territory In April 1803, Jefferson paid $15 million to purchase the territory Trade, Conflict, Warfare Transatlantic and Caribbean Trade The Anglo-French wars and Caribbean upheaval presented opportunities and obstacles After the war, France, Britain, and Spain all opened new avenues of trade to the Americas During the first Anglo-French War, American neutral traders caused international friction but commerce increased Americans continued to try to expand trade but it proved difficult American exports grew from $20.2 million in 1793 to $94 million in 1801 Caribbean absorbed large quantities of American products such as lumber, fish, livestock, corn, and wheat During European peace, American exports declined to $54 million But U.S. trade with Caribbean and Latin America grew Americans curtailed one area of international exchange in this period: the international slave trade British outlawed slave trade in 1807 and U.S. Congress followed in 1808 Mediterranean Trade: Barbary Wars U.S. also faced conflict in the Mediterranean U.S. sought to contain pirates through a series of treaties and tributes Congress had been reluctant to pay too much and Americans continued to be harassed and kidnapped Jefferson proved willing to fight in North America The Pasha of Tripoli, Yusuf Qaramanli, declared war on the U.S. in 1801 o Jefferson imposed a blockade and invaded o Reached a peace agreement Ongoing Barbary conflicts exposed how weak the U.S. remained in the world Western Discontents U.S. citizens still clashed with Spain, Britain, and Indian interests After Burr was not reelected for a second term he sought to aggrandize himself with a set of convoluted imperial maneuvers. o 1805 organized Western settlers and planned an attack to wrest control of Mexico from Spain o Burr was captured and tried for treason and fled to England American settlers poured into the North-west territory Ohio became a state in 1803 Placed pressure on Shawnee and other Indians who resisted American expansion European Wars and Commercial Sanctions American tensions with Britain, and to a less degree France, built after 1805 Britain and France moved to restrict trade and impose naval blockades on one another British agreed to new trade relations with the U.S. in the Monroe- Pinckney Treaty in 1806, but DR controlled U.S. Senate and refused to ratify the treaty British ship Leopard fired on the U.S. warship Chesapeake o Action outraged American public DR controlled large commercial sanctions on Britain and France Congress approved the Embargo Act in December 1807, which cut off all foreign trade o Hurt European economies o But did far more damage to the U.S. where the GDP fell by 8% The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809, Congress reopened trade with countries other than Britain and France All restrictions were lifted in May 1810 – too difficult to enforce The War of 1812 War Declared President Madison and the DR in control of Congress, aka War Hawks, agitated for war against Britain Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, and John C. Calhoun led the charge for war Faced stiff opposition from Federalists War Hawks hoped to guarantee “free trade and sailors’ rights”, to expel Britain from North America, and to pacify Indian nations who they felt stood in their way of American expansion in the West Shawnee and other Indians aligned themselves with British who promoted to halt U.S. expansion DR welcomed the chance to prove that the U.S. was a force to be reckoned with Opposition Federalist New Englanders had friendly relations with the British o Saw war as unnecessary and led opposition to the war Week after Congress declared war, the severity of internal conflict became apparent as rioting broke out in Baltimore, a politically divided city Alexander Hanson, a Federalist newspaper editor denounced the war in print o Pro-war mob demolished his office o Hanson was taken into custody, but a mob rushed the jail and beat him o Mob also killed James Lingan who was trying to protect him o City officials did little to stop the violence Despite riots, Federalists maintained political resistance throughout the war U.S. Offensives in Canada Americans unsuccessfully invaded Canada in the War of 1812 Expelling the British from their largest North American colony would surely grant new land to the U.S. and deny support to Indian enemies Tecumseh and Pan-Indian Resistance General Proctor’s second attack into Ohio in July 1813 was planned by Tecumseh, the Shawnee leader who had continued to build alliances with Indians and the British Proctor’s men lost and the general blamed Tecumseh and his force returned to Canada Tecumseh urged the British to continue the offensive against the U.S. U.S. army force commanded by William Henry Harrison and Richard Mentor Johnson pursued Proctor as he pulled his forces back into Canada October 5, 1813 they clashed with British and Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames o Tecumseh killed and the Indians lost heart Tecumseh’s death also meant the death of his Pan-Indian resistance movement Some of Tecumseh’s allies ended British alliance to make terms with U.S. but others continued to resist Naval War When U.S. entered the War of 1812, no one thought they could match the Royal Navy, the world’s most impressive fighting force U.S. Navy did better than expected and initially outperformed U.S. ground troops Britain’s Navy was absorbed in the final struggle against Napoleon and U.S. fielded skilled commanders British Offensive After defeating Napoleon in 1813, British turned attention and resources on U.S. U.S. troops faced more experienced, better supplied, and better commanded British soldiers In the north, British and Americans traded the advantage in 1814 British entered Washington on August 24 and burned almost every government building including the White House Also captured Alexandria, Virginia without a fight British were stopped when they reached Baltimore in September The War Ends British were anxious to negotiate an end to American war now that they were at peace with France Negotiators met for both sides in Belgium in the summer of 1814 and talks proceeded into the fall as fighting continued U.S. and Britain signed the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812 on Christmas Eve 1814 British agreed to evacuate American territory Both sides pledged to make peace with Indians and settle Canadian border issues Ironically, the treaty made no mention of the prewar naval or trade conflicts that had led to the war U.S. claimed victory Changed little in international politics U.S. emerged with a new set of heroes including Andrew Jackson and Oliver Hazard Perry DR gained luster and the Federalist Party was practically destroyed U.S. proved to its citizens and to the world that It could stand up to Britain and survive * DR: Democratic Republican party
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