HST 121: Weeks 5, 6, and 7
HST 121: Weeks 5, 6, and 7 HST 121
Popular in Global History to 1750
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany Marsfelder on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HST 121 at Syracuse University taught by George Kallander in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Global History to 1750 in History at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
October 3, 2016 HST 121: Professor Kallander Lecture: Imperial Arenas Empires can be land, of course, but can also be scientific, seafaring, economic, essentially anything. China Renewed: Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) o Peasant uprising in 1351, instability of Mongol elite o Millenarism White Lotus Sect o Zhu Yuanzhang (1320-1398( Proclaims Ming Dynasty Spends a lot of time fighting, gaining support Many of foreign advisors and former government officials rebel Exam system, ancient traditions restored Mongols didn’t want Chinese in power o However, there was a decrease in population because of disease/famine and war Took a while to bounce back o Yongle Emperor (1402-1424) Meddled in politics of Vietnam o Central government, protection against warrior steppelanders Enticed Japanese to trade Voyages of Zheng He Muslim eunuch, representative of assimilated old foreign administration Sets out to establish Chinese dominance and gain new tributaries for China o Symbolism of China as central power o Increase knowledge of outside world Massive fleets and ships: 7 voyages between 1404-1433 300 ships and 27,000 crew per voyage. Opposition by Confucian elites who loathed commerce Voyages ended with Zheng’s death; ships/records destroyed Confucian opposition, military threats to empire, astronomical cost of voyages. Didn’t like spending money on things that were not practical. China becomes increasingly inward-looking, though were still one of if not the biggest and wealthiest country Europe o Harness wind to carry people farther and farther o Indian Ocean Prosperous markets and lucrative products (spices, drugs, aromatics) o Atlantic “Fixed-wind”, so it took a long time to develop navigation with fixed-wind systems, as how could someone get home? Highway to the rest of the world, but exploration was slow o Pacific Imperialism Past: Controlling land New: Controlling sea China, Russia, Mwene Mutapa, Aztecs, “maritime imperialism” Incas, Mongols Establishing trade routes “trading past empires” New discoveries o Was Europe special? o Lack of resources spurred them to explore Needed import/export commodities o Incentive from overseas empires o Profit – incentive from overseas empires o Prestige – competition between empires o Also wanted to control land to have proximity, making it easier to travel o Social Darwinism Portugal, 1480s o Wanted Asian goods o Hardship of navigation in Atlantic o Early exploration of Atlantic by Portuguese Development of sugar plantations, needing gold and slaves Arrangement of trade controls with West Africa Spain o Christopher Columbus European Maritime Empires o Portugal: small European state with history of seafaring o Establishment of ports and bases to enforce trading monopoly o Goods: textiles, porcelain, timber, spices, drugs o Gold, silver o Interaction with native peoples Attempts at religious conversions October 5, 2016 HST 121: Professor Kallander Lecture: Documentary Ottoman Empire o Osman – Suni leader of Anatolians, founder of Ottoman empire. Down to earth, attractive to others as he cared about his people and was very competent when it came to battle tactics. Ambush, hit and run, speed and horsemanship. Also offered religious freedom, and pioneered discovery, history, and science studies. o Anatolian Peninsula – bordered by Byzantium and Mongols, homeland of Ottomans. Byzantine Empire – 330 AD, was once powerful but was now very weak and old. The Ottomans wanted the spoils Osman’s raids similar in attracting people to the Gold Rush Victory over Byzantines cemented his leadership o Janissaries – Ottoman warriors still loyal to Murad II. o Constantinople – capital of Byzantine Empire/Roman Empire, was sieged and fired upon by cannons at weak spots. o Mehmet II – was handed the throne at 12 when his father tried to retire, then assumed throne again at 19. Wanted to overthrow Constantinople, constructed fortresses 6 miles from Constantinople to try to besiege them. And, he did. o Orhan – Osman’s son, wanted war as opposed to his father, wanted to take Bursa (made capital, declared King, became sedentary), gained foothold using Dardanelles, spread to Balkans, use of tolerance and force of arms. Children taken as new recruits and janissaries, became high ranking officials o Renamed Constantinople Istanbul, built mosque o Grand Bazaar – trade routes connecting Asia and Europe, like the Byzantines did o “ensure that the city had a population with the urban skills… that he would want them to have.” o Topkapi Palace – crown jewel Symbol and place of power Took over much of Byzantine aesthetic o Mehmet II – Renaissance man w/ civic duty who waged war against Christian territories for money; idea and military man October 10, 2016 HST 121: Professor Kallander Lecture: The Ecological Revolution of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Earlier imperialism: control land and production (land) o Mongols o Russians New imperialism: control trade and ports (maritime) o Europeans: less resources, more tech, understanding of sea New era was unprecedented o One step up from Mongols A Global Economy o Interconnection of global trade and the movement of peoples driven by European expansionism Europeans to the Americas Africans to the Americas; forcible/slavery Europeans to Asia, Australia, and Pacific Formerly isolated, now in contact with world via Europeans Movement of Asians and Europeans throughout Eurasia Plants and animals from Americas to Eurasia, from Eurasia to the Americas Invasive species Unprecedented, before the species were isolated o Interaction of people/migration Ideas, prejudices, food, microbes Creates turbulence; rapid upheaval Indigenous impact Hardship Animals o Few domestic animals in the Americas and horse, cattle, pigs, chickens, sheep, etc. were rapidly introduced. o Effects around the globe Potatoes became a maiisnstay of many Northern European cuisines (Ireland, Russia) Transformed the way people could survive Came from South America Used to harsh conditions, easy to grow Nutritious, “calorific” plant Easy to hide in warfare Tomatoes mainstay of Italian cuisine Sugar grown in the Americas creates demand worldwide; same with tobacco The Microbial Exchange o Typhus, smallpox, influenza, plague, malaria; native to Eurasia so Eurasians are immune, everyone else not so much o Effects on Native Americans severe; 60-90% death But Australians, Pacific Islanders, Siberians, Africans susceptible as well o Effects on Europeans o New diseases in Eurasia New strains Military Revolution o Development of rifles and gunpowder o Cannons and rifles o Chinese and Europeans – ships became smaller, agile o Tip the power between sedentary (agricultural-based) and nomadic (pastoralist) societies Think “knife to a gun fight” or that scene from Indiana Jones Steppeland powers (Mongols and others in Siberia) “squeezed out” by Russia/Ching Dynasty/Japan (1,500 gun factories) North American nations – rifles can overcome land empires New European Colonies in the Americas o Spain and Portugal: South America All European countries wanted to go to India for the spice trade Wanted mining, precious metal, sugar and tobacco o North American colonies Shipping in New England Trade African slaves Ecological Effects of Global Economy o Expansion/contraction, opportunity/loss o Changing cuisines and agriculture (new species) o Movements of peoples Large scale destruction of Native American populations o Interconnectedness of trade and people across the globe World economy grows on American silver and gold o New lines of communication Dissemination of knowledge Missionaries to establish superiority, convert European Maritime Empires o Portugal: small European state with a history of seafaring 1632, 1634, 1639; Ethopia, Japan, etc. Pushed out of Turkey in 1622 One of the first to look far and wide four resources: met with resistence in 1620s Ports would be sacked in the Indian Ocean Religious intolerance o Netherlands: small European state with a history of seafaring Seized Portuguese trading interest and made it more efficient Fishing, shipping, commercial institutions Dutch in Japan; Portugal and English arrived first Just wanted trade; involved in the new country Japan was freshly unified Portuguese were able to convert the Southern Isles but Japan was staunchly anti-Catholic Deshma An entire artificial island for the Dutch (1600-1868) Nanban Trade (Southern Barbarians) and Japanese seclusion o Portuguese 1542 o Christianity o Dutch, English, Spanish 1600 Wanted to learn more about outside world o 1639; “Closed Country” Asian Maritime Expansion o Japan and China: merchant communities with little direct connection to home governments; diaspora Korea too, but to a lesser extent o Attempts to control trade by Japan and China o Massacres of Chinese colonists in the Philippines (xenophobia), 1603 and 1639 o Japanese refugees converted by Portuguese and religious persecution Anti-Catholic Early 1600s Japanese Invasion of Korea (1592-1598) o Hideyoshi (1536-1598) Part of Shoguns, who unified Japan o Helped unify Japan after centuries of civil war o Attempted oversea expansion’ invaded Korea, but China was his primary goal, as was India to a lesser extent (1592-1598) Economic, ideological o Fought Ming Dynasty, Choson dynasty Korea (1392-1910) 150,000 samurai invaded, 300,000 Chinese, many Koreans The largest war fought anywhere Ends in stalemate o Consequences Destabilized Ming Dynasty Rise of Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), another “barbarian”-led dynasty Expansionist dynasty (land empire) Political change in Japan Hideyoshi’s death, wasted resources on invasion led to rise of Tokugawa state (1600-1867), inward-looking land empire October 12, 2016 HST 121: Professor Kallander Lecture: Slavery, Race, and the Origins of American Freedom Main Idea: Slavery and race made American freedom; all these identities were flattened, reduced to generic “blackness”. Owning slaves was constitutional right. o Henry Lawrence, a large slave trader, was president of the Constitutional Congress from 1777-1778 o But, even before that, there were 3 centuries of trading and oppression. 1441, Lisbon – returning from exploratory voyage, wondered if possible to circumnavigate Africa to get to Asia Henry the Navigator, Portuguese – came up with the aforementioned idea Iberians – people of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) A few dozen African slaves brought- first known to be brought to Europe “to gain by their means profit or by their source” Profit and religious connection- non-Christians sold, especially prominent during Crusades Multiple potential uses: ransomed or sold “to gain by their means profit or by their source” Kidnapped Mutual exchange between Portuguese and African traders – a steady stream of captives from sub-Saharan Africa in exchange for profit Societies with slaves: Slave labor not essential to economy; slaves not large proportion of society o Portugal o Saharan Africa Slave Societies: Slave labor drives economy; slaves make up 30% or more of the population; slavery shapes institutional life in society o Roman Empire/Mediterranean world o Early modern Atlantic Sub-Saharan Africa; slavery = property and wealth o Slave trading regarded as people = personal and corporate wealth o Land was abundant, property not – could not establish hierarchy via land ownership, thus resorted to property rights as ownership of people Pawnship, market exchange o Most vulnerable and despised: war captive, victims of environment, criminals… 50,000 enslavd Africas exported above Portuguese vessels, 1450-1500, primarily from Congo and Nigeria o Difference between cultural trading and market demand which accompanies Portuguese Where? Lisbon and Sevilla (75%), Atlantic Islands (20%), “El Mina” or Ghana (5%) o Portuguese people met African people willing to trade gold, which is what they were looking for Portuguese and Spanish colonies, Azores, Canaries, Madeira, Cape Verde, Sao Tome, Principe o Colonial system of slavery: slavery as tool for colonial expansion and production of wealth Sugar crop, cash crop – western Christendom wanted it, thought wealth would grow to unimaginable proportions Atlantic phenomenon = sugar as cash crop, European colonies in Americas, and African slavery Columbus’ Second Voyage, 1494 – responsible for dramatic rise in exploration and trade Ayiti/La Ilsa Espanola “Spanish Island” – 500 men and women taken to sell, only 300 survived Taino, indigenous peoples of the Caribbean and Florida Profit and source of wealth, people from New World Spanish, slave labor, colonies in Americas – colonies in Indies, economically viable b/c people could be sold Indians – people of the Indies 1542, abolished practice of using native Americans as slaves o Shift towards African slaves in Spanish Americas Demographic population collapse after Spanish arrive via new diseases o Needed a new population Taino population, massive decline by slave raiding and infectious disease Bartolome de las Casas, 1510s – called for replacement of Indians w/African slaves Beginning of trans-Atlantic slave trade, Africans o Allowed to bring ships with Africans into New World o Worked in rural and urban areas of Mexico and South America o 350,000 African captives in Spanish Americas, 16 - middle of the 17 centuries th Marked decline in demand of slaves from 17 century – 150 years, because evident indigenous were bouncing back o Recovery of indigenous population Silver found in Mexico and Potosi, Andes mountains (Bolivia) Other European colonizers after Spain, alternatives to Spain’s silver mines are greedy Not El Dorado – city of gold, but is a useful legend/incentive o Extract wealth from ground, commercial agriculture o Brazil and slave labor, sugar as export, cash crop o Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494, division of Atlantic world between Portugal and Spain th o Portuguese and Brazil, middle of 16 century, sugar plantation system to Brazil o Enslaved Indians, sugar plantations, Tupi Indians o Africans Brazilian colonies, 1620s, enslaved Africans, 100% labor force o Sugar plantations 6,000 enslaved Africans each year, Brazil biggest importer of sugar into Western Europe Tobacco, indigenous Americas, cash crop, Caribbean French, British, late 16 and 17 centuries via tobacco o Supply went beyond demand Indentured servitude (temporarily enslaved), good for tobacco, European men and some women, 4-7 years “New freedom” in New World after servitude o England/French want indentured servant goods in new economy o Commercially relevant and profitable colonies; after 1630s, economic problem of tobacco, Virginia o Adopted sugr and slavery complex of the Portuguese Dutch in the 17 Atlantic World; occupied Peranmbuco (NE Brazil), 1630-1654; had experience with slaves, asserted itself in global economy Seized El Mina, 1537 Dutch vs. Portuguese in 1630s; Dutch grab control of parts of Brazil Dutch as trans-Atlantic slave traders, 1640s, offer to help British and French Colonial slave system; sugar and African slavery spread throughout Caribbean Enslaved Africans to New World, 198,000 in 16 century 17 century African slave population, 1.5 million, because of sugar plantation o Portuguese did it first; meant for local consumption, not domestic Societies with slaves in Spanish-American colonies in this period Portuguese Brazil first full slavery in Americas – Indians drove economy When and how did African slavery come to North America? Twenty 1619 Dutch warship, via Jamaica, 20 Africans o Africans as commodity o English and French Privateers o Supplies