Chapter 10 Notes
Chapter 10 Notes Psyc 1101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by D'Angel Brooks on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Graham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to General Pyschology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion Motivation defined as the need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. Motivation has been a central & perennial issue in the field of psychology given that it is at the core of biological, cognitive & social regulation. How are we motivated? We are motivated in two ways: o Intrinsically o Extrinsically Intrinsic motivation is performing an activity for the pleasure inherent in the activity o Behavior that is driven by internal rewards, performing an action for the sake of enjoyment, desire to expend effort based on self-interest in what is necessary to achieve or attain a goal where there is no apparent external reward associated with the effort. o Examples of intrinsic motivation include studying hard to get an A; attaining a performance goal because you really want to improve personal results. Extrinsic motivation is performing an activity for o External reasons, such as the pursuit of a reward in terms of money, public & social recognition, job promotion, or elevated status where the award is tangible (e.g., money) or psychological (e.g., praise), o And motivation is directed at the attainment of those external rewards. o For example, an athlete engages in sport just to win medals, recognition, fame and/or money. External rewards are an important motivator, however when we aspire to Excited Motivation: The Internal Passion & Determination to Succeed in Achieving Goals We are capable of far reaching success beyond external reward Three motivation concepts or theories used to explain motivation are: o Drive-Reduction Theory, o Arousal Theory & o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Drive-Reduction Theory o Is the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state or drive that motivates us to satisfy a need o For instance, the need for food or water produces o The drive to quench hunger & thirst o Effecting drive-reducing behaviors Arousal is described as an increased heart rate, level of nervousness, anxiousness & or anxiety, associated with intense mental activity. Arousal Theory contends we are motivated to engage in behaviors that either increase or decrease arousal levels which effects performance, o Such as taking a difficult exam where performance is likely to increase when arousal is at a moderate to high level; but not excessive The most popular account that explains the effect of arousal on motivation is the model of Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning. o IZOF proposes that there are individual differences in the way people react to anxiety. o Some tend to succeed when anxiety is low while others tend to succeed when anxiety is high. o Therefore each person has his/her own preferred level of anxiety that allows them to perform at their optimum level of performance. In other words, the Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) shows that when o The level of arousal increases it fuels human desire – motivation, o And continues to increase up to a point where individual performance peaks & o Then drops off as arousal continues to increase but in a negative manner interfering with performance. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs At the base is physiological needs that must be satisfied such as hunger, thirst. The second level is safety needs where we need to feel that the world is organized & predictable to be safe, secure & stable The third level is belongingness & love needs where we need to feel love, to be loved, to belong, & to be accepted The fourth level is our esteem need that involves the feeling of achievement, competency and recognition, respect of each other The fifth level is self-actualization which is the need to live up to our fullest & unique potential The fifth and top level is self-transcendence which is the need to find meaning & identity beyond self. Emotion The association between motivation & arousal/needs is linked through emotion Emotions are adaptive responses that support survival. Emotional components include o Bodily arousal o Expressive behaviors o Conscious experiences Arousal What is AROUSAL? o A state of physiological alertness & readiness for action. o A pervasive state of cortical responsiveness believed to be associated with sensory stimulation & therefore, the activation of fibers from the reticular activating system. o A state of excitement or energy expenditure linked to a strong emotion. James-Lange stated arousal comes before emotion o Arguing that emotion involves awareness of our physiological responses to emotion- arousing stimuli & o Maintained that a physiological response happens BEFORE we know what we are feeling Cannon-Bard argued that arousal & emotion happen at the same time o Where emotion was seen as an arousing stimulus which simultaneously triggers physiological responses & subjective emotional experiences According to research there are 10 basic emotions: o Joy o Interest-Excitement o Surprise o Sadness o Anger o Disgust o Contempt o Fear o Shame o Guilt *love is not on this list because it makes up most of these* The Autonomic Nervous System and Emotion The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) comprises the sympathetic & the parasympathetic divsions. The ANS controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of our heart & the widening/narrowing of our blood vessels, & responds to emotional change in anxiety or stress that can cause o Increased blood pressure, o Heart problems & or o Trouble with breathing & swallowing