Lecture 13 - Chapter 10: Sexual Expression
Lecture 13 - Chapter 10: Sexual Expression HLWL 1109
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HLWL 1109 at George Washington University taught by Philip W. Lucas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Health and Wellness at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Leslie Ogu HLWL 1109 10/18/2016 - Chapter 10: Sexual Expression Questions to Class ● Why do you think so many people are hesitant to talk about sexual pleasure? There is no doubt that you talk about sex with friends, but why has it become so taboo and so difficult to talk about what brings you sexual pleasure? ○ Avoid embarrassment ○ Family values ○ Influenced by ethnicity ○ People aren’t comfortable opening that side of themselves ● Do you think your ethnicity affects your sexuality? In what ways? Why do you think this is? Influences of Sexuality ● Hormones and neurotransmitters ○ Both sexes produces estrogen and testosterone, although in different amounts that decrease with age ○ Neurotransmitters oxytocin, serotonin, dopamine, and vasopressin affect desire, arousal, and orgasm ● Family background ○ We internalize norms from our family of origin Influences of Sexuality - Ethnicity ● Ethnicity can affect our sexual behaviors, frequency, attitudes, and communications ● Race is one of the most influential variables affecting sexual attitudes and behaviors ● Racial and ethnic identities are closely tied to religion Influences of Sexuality - Religion ● In general, the more religious people are: ○ The more conservative their sexual attitudes and behavior ○ The less they have premarital intercourse ○ The less they engage in risky sexual behavior ○ The less they approve of oral sex ○ The more guilt they experience about sexual behavior Studying Sexual Response ● Masters and Johnson’s four-phase sexual response cycle ○ Four-phase model of physiological changes that occur during sexual behavior, regardless of sexual orientation: ○ Four phases: ■ Excitement ■ Plateau ■ Orgasm ■ Resolution Helen Singer Kaplan’s Triphasic Model ● Sexual response starts with psychological component ● Three phases: ○ Desire: the psychological phase (sexual) ○ Excitement: the first physiological phase ○ Orgasm: the second physiological phase David Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway (ESP) ● Four phases: ○ Seduction (a psychosocial phase) ○ Sensation (a psychosocial phase) ○ Surrender (orgasm) ○ Reflection (reflect on the experience) The Kinsey Institute’s Dual Control Model of Sexual Response ● Views sexual response as a neurobiological two-part process involving sexual excitation and inhibition (Bancroft and colleagues, 2009) ○ Excitation triggered by a variety of things ○ Inhibition is characterized by two aspects: ■ Performance anxieties ■ Fears about negative consequences Future Directions in Sexual Response ● Tiefer’s New View Model ○ Many important aspects of sexuality: pleasure, emotionality, sensuality, cultural differences, power issues, and communication ○ Women’s sexual experiences do not neatly coincide with Masters and Johnson’s Model ○ Basso’s view also sees women as more complex ■ Argues that non-sexual distractions of life interfere with women’s arousal Solitary Sexual Behavior - Sexual Fantasy ● Sexual fantasies are normal and healthy ○ They may be a driving force in human sexuality ○ Men tend to have sexual fantasies and cognitions more often than women ○ Similar fantasies occur regardless of sexual orientation, with the exception of the gender of the fantasized partner ○ Most people have a select few fantasies ● Women’s sexual fantasies ○ Sexual fantasy is used to increase arousal, self-esteem, and sexual interest, and to cope with past hurts and relieve stress ○ Age is unrelated to types of sexual fantasies ● Men’s sexual fantasies ○ Tend to be more frequent, impersonal, and visual ● Sexual fantasies play a role in many people’s lives, and may or may not be shared with a partner Masturbation ● In the past, masturbation was feared as a cause of mental and physical problems ● Currently viewed as a way to promote healthy sexuality ○ Can decrease sexual tension and anxiety ○ Can be an outlet for sexual fantasy ○ Allows a person to test own body ○ Can be used by couples during intercourse (mutual masturbation) ○ Is unrelated to health or relationship status ● Across age and gender ○ Masturbation is the main sexual outlet in adolescence ○ Common throughout the lifespan for men and women ■ Women more likely to feel stigma against masturbation ■ More than half of women aged 18-49 years old masturbate (highest in the 25 to 29 group ■ Common and frequent component of male sexual behavior ■ Highest between ages of 25-29 ● Across culture ○ Cultural and religious taboos can lead to increased guilt ○ Asian American women masturbate significantly less than non-Asian women ● Practices ○ May complement an active sex life ○ May compensate for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction with sex ○ Can incorporate vibrators or dildos
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