Ch. 11 Judaism pgs. 386-408
Ch. 11 Judaism pgs. 386-408 REL 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Crump on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to REL 101 at University of Mississippi taught by Kristy Slominski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Religion in Religion at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
10/18/16 Chapter 11: Judaism Pgs. 386 – 408 The matching sections will be the 3 branches of Buddhism, Sikhism, and Judaism Last Class: Covenant – contractual relationship between the Jews and their god o 613 mitzvot orthodox Jews try to uphold all 613 mitzvoth reform Jews have to tried to adapt the religion for today, thus they do not practice all 613 Tanakh o The first five books: The Torah o The Talmud/Oral Torah o Noah, Abraham, Israelites, Moses o Temple – Moses came down from Mt. Sinai and they wandered through the desert and eventually built a temple to house the stones and worship and give offerings to their god First temple was destroyed by Babylonians Without a temple, the synagogue was born because they need a temporary place to worship Second temple was destroyed by the Romans in Jersusalem Early Israelites vs. Jews (adaptations due to the absence of temple) Temple vs synagogue Priests vs. rabbis Sacrifice vs. prayer Land of Israel vs. diaspora – living outside of the homeland (Israel) Living prophets vs. Tanakh Medieval Judaism Christian Europe o Crusades – a series of holy wars; Christians waged war on the Muslims to get control over Jerusalem; 4 waves; Jews were caught in the middle and persecuted more o Ghettos – segregated from the Christians; Jews were required to live in ghettos o Expulsion – Jews were often forced to leave Muslim empires in the middle east o Allowed Jews to develop their culture and live relatively freely compared to the Christians 10/18/16 o “People of the Book” – considered Christians and Jews this way because they were predecessors of their religion Kabbalah – Jewish mysticism; the secret meanings of the Jewish texts and Jewish identity o By praying and meditating you can unlock the secret meanings of the texts and gain further access to god o Other meaning, god chose the Jews; god put a divine spark in the souls of Jews and that was their identity, they have a piece of god in them Banking – stereotypes about Jews being money driven has historical basis because Jews were the only ones who could work in bank o There was a ban on usury (– earning money based on money) for Muslims and Christians so the Jews worked in the banks o Jews only banned usury within the Jewish community so serving the Muslims and Christians was okay European Enlightenment, 18 century Rationalism – using one’s own reason to get to an answer instead of seeking divine or religious authority for guidance o Tolerance (for Jews) o Jewish emancipation Reform Judaism o Adaptations to European culture: not practices the strict laws of Judaism Non-essential laws of Judaism were thrown out Orthodox Judaism Those who want to maintain observance of 613 mitzvot Male minyan and rabbis – only males can be rabbis and minyans – a quorum; 10 males required to have prayer circle Separation in synagogue – a curtain separated men and women in the synagogue Hebrew – remains the main language of the sacred life Halakhah – Jews laws; 613 commandments o Kashrut – kosher laws o Shabbat – Sabbath laws Orthodox Jewish women – exempt from time-bound laws because their main job is to maintain the home and the children Special mitzvoth for women: o Sabbath candles – light the Sabbath candles on Friday evening o Challah – bread that is often used in rituals; the women are to separate the bread 10/18/16 o Purity rituals: mikveh – women are to separate themselves from men during menstruation, afterward the women have a bath to purify them (mikveh refers to the bath) Kashrut – Kosher food Land animals with cloven hooves, chews it cud are allowed o Yes: cattle, sheep, goats; no: pigs Fish with fins and scales are allowed o No: shellfish Some birds allowed, like chicken o predatory birds aren’t Slaughtering techniques – kosher butcher has to do butcher the animal and with a certain method, certain tools, etc. Prohibits consumption of blood (blood is the life force of the animal), mixing meats and dairy, and grape-products made by gentiles (no Jews) – other religions were using wine in rituals to worship other gods so using wine made by a non-Jews would be against the commandment to worship only their god Shabbat Observance: o Lighting candles o Reciting blessings o Meal o Synagogue services Types of prohibited activities: o Making materials o Writing/erasing o Building/breaking down o No kindling/extinguishing/carrying fire Ultra-Orthodox Hasidic Jews “Hasid” = love, devotion direct mystical experience of God strict adherence to halakhah – 613 commandments Rebbe – believe there is a higher spiritual/political leader than the rabbi o Well respected and a model figure Distinct clothing Reform Judaism Female rabbis Mixed gender congregations Adding women to the minyan 10/18/16 Bat mitzvah – “daughter of the commandment” when females turn 13 they are recognized as being part of the religious community Non Hebrew language in worship services Some LGBT synagogues Conservative Judaism Conservative refers to the amount of change they implement; a middle ground between reform and orthodox 1880s American Jewish context “trefa banquet” – trefa = unclean/unkosher food; the banquet offended some Jews that were leaning toward reform Judaism and they branched out Jewish Life Cycle Rituals th Brit Milah (bris) – circumcision ritual of the male baby on his 8 day of life Bar/Bat Mitzah – reading of the Torah in front of the congregation Marriage – a contract; weddings often have specific rituals o Married under a canopy o Groom breaks a glass at the end to symbolize the destruction of the second temple Mourning Rituals o Sitting shivah Holy Days Rosh Hashanah – Jewish new year involving self-reflection and bettering their relationship with god; high holy day Yom Kippur – the day of atonement; involves a lot of self-reflection and thought of repentance; fasting intercourse and eating; second high holy day Passover – commemorates the exodus o Can’t eat anything with yeast – only eat matzah o Passover Seder – ritual meal that symbolizes parts of exodus history o Pg. 391 summarizes the components Bitter herbs Sweet sticky mixture Lamb shank bone An egg Green vegetable Salt water Wine Hanukah – a minor holiday; refers to a story in the Hebrew Bible about an oil lamp and the miracle of light o Light the menorah for 8 days 10/18/16 Holocaust, early 1940s Murder of 6 million Jews by Nazis during World War II o Leads to the creation of Israel as a safe place but later doesn’t really work out that way (butt heads with Muslims) Concentration camps 1/3 of Jews in world, ½ of Jews in Europe “How could God allow this?” o A big question for the people who consider themselves “the chosen ones” of god
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