Mass Media: Chapter 9 (TV)
Mass Media: Chapter 9 (TV) MASS110
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Schoettle on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MASS110 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Shane Frederik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Media in Mass Media Communication at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Intro to Mass Media Shane Frederick, Fall 2016 Table of Contents Red: important terms Green: other important information Purple: names of important people Chapter 9 (Television) The evolution of television Invention of the Cathode Ray Tube combined elements of the camera and electricity Invention of the Scanning Disc; flat metal disc with a series of tiny holes to let the image through when rotated Mechanical TV used rotating discs to scan moving images into electrical impulses which were transmitted by cable to a screen Electronic TV used an electronic beam to scan a picture in horizontal lines TV broadcasting began as early as 1928 Regular TV broadcasts by NBC started in 1939 TVs were very expensive at first o After WWII TV sets dropped dramatically in price The FCC outlined some technical standards o Restricted to a 525 line system o The image rate had to be 30 frames per second o It was recommended that all TV sets operate using analog systems WWII halted almost all TV broadcasting Color technology wasn’t available until the 50s but it was proposed in 1904 NTSC: National Television Systems Committee NBC made its first color broadcast in 1953 o Black and White TV sets outnumbered colored sets until 1972 1950s: Golden Age of TV o Single sponsored programs o Quiz shows o “spectaculars” o Domestic Comedies I Love Lucy Beverly Hillbillies Seinfeld o Created a real shared cultural experience across the country 1960s: Escapist Time o Serious, real world news was coming in daily o Sitcoms and westerns were diversions to that reality o Cable TV came along Developed to reach remote areas Homes connected to high antennas Technology was slowed by FCC restrictions until the 70s 1970s: Diversity and Politics o Pay TV started in 1972 (HBO) o Real life issues entered mainstream comedies o Satire poked fun at the government 1980s: New Age o More violence on TV o Gender roles started to be challenged o The Cosby Show 1990s: Reality Bites o CNN takes of o Created big, expensive shows and stars o Reality TV was cheaper to produce o Talk Shows arose 90s, 2000s, and beyond o Cable, satellite, and internet reach a fragmented audience o Broadband networks provided a multichannel TV service along with telephone, high speed internet, and advanced digital video services o Narrowcasting, specialized channels Food Network, Travel Channel, ESPN… o Includes Partisan news networks o Political Satire o TV shows now equal to movies as an art form o DVR, streaming services, and binge watching In 2009 digital replaced analog technology In 2010 half of the country had HDTV o Invented in Japan, available in the US in 1998 Relationships between TV and culture TV has both reflected and nurtured cultural morals and values The relationship between social attitudes and TV is reciprocal Most domestic comedies in the 50s portrayed an idealized version of family life and ignored social and political events In the 60s, TV began to play a bigger role in US politics during the Presidency of JFK The Vietnam War was the first televised war o Escapist sitcoms provided America with diversions In the 70s, popularity of controversial shows reflected the changing attitudes and values in culture and society Cable TV allowed viewers to watch films and adult-themes shows during all hours Black Entertainment TV launched in 1980 TV remains the most important, unifying cultural presence in the US o Most major world events have been seen through TV JFK assassination Moon Landing Berlin Wall Falling 9/11 o TV is constantly improving in quality which leads to more viewing Televised news can reach people in a way that radio and newspapers cannot Broadcasters are now narrowing their focus to cater to more specialized audiences o FOX vs MSNBC Reality TV shows created the instant celebrity o Dancing with the Stars o Survivor o American Idol Issues and Trends in the TV Industry During the 50s, shows went from single to multiple sponsorship o Advertisers started paying for minute long ads Public TV was created for people who couldn’t aford private TV services o PBS o Have also had to rely on commercial sponsorship to stay afloat Between 1950 and 1970, the Big Three networks accounted for 95% of prime time viewing o ABC, CBS, and NBC o FOX was added in 1986 to create the Big Four o Prime Time: between 7 to 11 pm ; programming is screened here to reach the largest audience The primary challenge of network TV is the rapid growth of cable and the use of satellites to distribute local channels to a national audience Influence of New Technology Satellite TV companies began to emerge once piracy was under control o Largest are DirecTV and Dish o They try to lure customers by ofering premium channels, sports and movie packages, and competitive prices TV is so far surviving the internet o However, viewing outlets such as YouTube allow people to watch clips or entire episodes whenever they want for free o And Video-on-Demand services such as Netflix and Amazon allow viewers to watch shows and movies at their own convenience TV is becoming more interactive o Blogging o Online chats o FB or Twitter accounts to follow
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