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PPD 225 WEEK 7

by: Isaac Lemus

PPD 225 WEEK 7 PPD 225

Isaac Lemus

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These notes cover anything that was discussed during week 7 of the class! Sorry for the late post, I just got over being sick for the last week.
Public Policy and Management
Yan Tang
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isaac Lemus on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PPD 225 at University of Southern California taught by Yan Tang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Public Policy and Management in PPD at University of Southern California.


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Date Created: 10/18/16
Class Notes: 10/4 ● Review from last night’s reading: ○ So what exactly is the ​Prisoner's Dilemm​ In it’s simplest form, it is when two people have to make a decision ignorant of the other person’s decision. This study shows whether or not a person will try to benefit the group or themselves. Here are some terms for the whole process and the four outcomes: ■ Reward: ​ The outcome when both people decide to cooperate. Ideal outcome of the group because it has the most pay out. Cooperating is the best for the group, while defecting is the best for the individual ■ Punishment:​ The is the outcome when both decide to defect and. No one wins ■ Temptation:​ This is the outcome when you defect and the other person cooperates. You get the highest individual outcome here ■ Sucker:​ This is the outcome when you choose to cooperate and the other decides to defect, you get the lowest outcome this way ■ Look at the jail time example below for an illustration A: Defect A: Cooperates B: Defect 8 yrs \ 8yrs Free \ 20 years A: Cooperate 20 yrs \ free 6 yrs \ 6 yrs ■ The Free Rider Dilemma is whenever the punishment is not enforced and instead is held on an honor system. ○ Merrill Flood​ further states that the more unreasonable and self interested group will get the most benefits. ○ With all this in mind it's clear​ ocial relations​ can play a role in the outcome because there can be negotiation and base decision off one another. Emotions and ethical duty can play a role. ○ Liberals​ tend to be cooperative whi​ onservatives​ take a defect slant ○ Examples of more complicated prisoners dilemmas: deciding whether or not to pay to go on the metro, or choosing whether or not to make a donation to PBS ● Review from last night’s reading: The ​ ower of Context by Malcolm Gladwell ○ The main take away from this reading is that our​ urroundings could be able to play a role in our decisions and actio​s. ○ In the case of the ​Goetz’s shooti​ typical reasoning would suggest that his character and personality was the reasoning behind his violence, but the power of context theory would suggest that the environment he was in and the low quality of life around him triggered him to react. ○ When trying to​ tackle crime​, ​typical​ reason would lean towards handling big problems like racism, social injustice, inequality, unemployment, etc, while the power of context​ theory would stress that small problems like quality of life and petty crimes could trigger these issues to rid​ roken Window Theory) ​ . ○ When looking at ourselves, normal reasoning would stress the importance of our personality and character for what we do, but the power of context theory would state that certain situations can bring to light other aspects of our personality. Therefore, surrounds play a part too. Fundamental Attribution error means that we tend to blame the actions of others on who they are and self serving bias means we tend to blame our actions on our personality. ● Class notes: Motivations ○ So as a stem from last week, how exactly do we get people to collaborate? The Prisoner's Dilemma game shows how motivations affect outcomes. T​ he irony of the PD game is that their instinct is to defect but the greatest outcome is if they both cooperate ○ There are many real life examples that can be used: Metro, Nuclear Rivalry, Elections, donations, social loafing in a group or organization. ○ The problem with the PD game is that in real life there is communication and the ‘game’ is usually repeated​ or not a one shot type experiment. ○ If you do have repeated games then the best strategy to win the most benefits overall is called t​ it for Tat strategy​. Always cooperate on the first round. If your opinion defects, you defect in the second round as a form of punishment. If they cooperate afterwards then you cooperate. ○ And, If the game is repeated, the goal is​ et rid of the idea that the relationships or game is going to e​ because the person will defect (Which is the best possible outcome for a one shot game) ○ Again, communication is key! ○ Just in general, you should try and avoid the one shot prisoner's dilemma game ○ In general, most people don’t want to be free riders or suckers either. Caused by the idea of fairness. ○ To stop people from defecting and seeking more personal benefit, institutions can set up safeguards Class Notes: 10/6 ● Review from last night’s reading: Petra Reyes Motivations and Decision Making ○ When it comes to policy making, there are two different strategies ■ Rational Comprehensive (Roots):​ Starting from an entirely new foundation each time and building only on experience gained through the process. ■ Successive Limited (Branch):​ Branching from the current situation in a step by step manner. ● This is the system that democracies use. This form of government makes alteration to the policies they have through increments of adjustment ● Malcolm Gladwell’s The Power of Context: ​ he purpose of this reading is to show just how powerful and impactful in the moment decision making can be. Spontaneity vs extensive information. ○ In a military training exercise, one team used as much data, intel, research, analysis, and approached the situation from all different aspects: Social, economical, political, etc, meanwhile the other team didn’t use any information to lift the enemy’s fog so to speak. ○ In the end the spontaneous group one. ​ ut It’s important to understand that benefits from being spontaneous only works when the those involved have great experience in their field and have repetitively practiced situations like this. It becomes innnate instinct not just random. ■ In command but out of control ○ Overthinking or overanalyzing can end up worsening the situation. ■ Verbal Shadowing, ​ by jonathan W. Schooler. People who had to explain themselves and be logical through analysis, they end up being less efficient. ○ Two underlying lessons:​ having a balance of distinctive thoughts and deliberate thoughts. When it comes to making decisions, it’s smart to get rid of complicated relations and patterns. Lectures notes ○ The readings show that we need to find a way to analyze the situation without being overwhelmed by the amount of information. ○ Using the root perspective of rational comprehensive method is not a possible option, because it takes so much time and effort to start from the ground up ○ All policy makers and people make decision incrementally.​ Key factors: ■ The means and end are not always distinct. Most times its means trying goals. ​We don’t know what we want until we are presented with the options ■ You only have a limited amount of time, energy, and money, so the best answer is to ​limit your analysis​ (college application process) ■ We need to be able to ​ gree on the policy​ rather than the exact details and values that those policies entail (Funding money for low income education by both parties) ○ What are the elements that form our decisions ■ Attention​ our small span of attention only lets us focus on a few key things. Certain aspects trigger our attention more than others. EX: We all tend to feel more strongly if we lose something so Political strategy: talk about what america has lost ■ Uncertainty​ When we don’t have an adequate source of information, our instincts and internal drive kicks in. ■ Priming​ The setup of the situation can influence our decision. Can create different behavior. EX: A class was shown a video and then asked to retrieve notes from the secretary ○ When making decisions as an individual, to cooperate on the first more, punish those who defect and always be willing to forgive (Tic for tac form last week) ○ Heuristics and feedback loops-​ a professional will always know the shortcuts and right approach to a situation because of experience. Informed by some perspective that gives us the innate possibility to make assumptions. 9 dot box activity. To find a better solution, question the previous tactics used and the assumptions that were made. Sometimes, our straightforward intuitions are wrong. Adopt multiple levels of analysis.


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