ANTHRO33: Lecture 8 (10/17/16)
ANTHRO33: Lecture 8 (10/17/16) ANTHRO 33
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Viola You on Wednesday October 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 33 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by E. A. Cartmill in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Culture and Communication in Anthropology at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/19/16
Take home messages ● Language imposes categories on the things we label in the world ● These categories can guide our attention and influence the similarities and differences we notice ● Ways language breaks up the world vary between languages, and these differences can influence (but don’t limit) how we think Communities of language ● Speech community ○ Things to consider: ■ Size and location of community ■ What is shared ■ Type of interactions ● Community of language Studying language vs speakers ● “Ideal speakerlistener in a completely homogenous speechcommunity” Chomsky Dell Hymes (19272009) ● American linguist, sociologist, anthropologist ● Pushback against view that competence was more important than performance ● SPEAKING model of studying language ● Hymes’ SPEAKING model ○ Setting and scene ○ Participants ○ Ends ○ Act sequence ○ Key (clues to tone of comm act) ○ Instrumentalities (forms and styles like register) ○ Norms ○ Genre John Gumperz (19222013) ● Focus on norms and ideologies of speech communities ● “Most groups of any permanence...may be treated as speech communities, provided they show linguistic peculiarities that warrant special study” William Labow (1927) ● Influenced methods in sociolinguistics ● Emphasis on norms and ideologies of speech community (practice can vary but norms are shared) Speech community ● Gumperz’s guidelines for speech community: ○ Frequent interaction ○ Shared “verbal repertoire” (but don’t have to share a dialect or language) ○ Shared set of norms (language ideologies) ● Not all members must speak the same way ○ “The speech community is not defined by any marked agreement in the use of language elements so much as by participation in a set of shared norms” Labov Knowledge of norms might differ ● Otto Santa Ana and Claudia Parodi ● Nested speech community ○ Based on differences in people’s contact with others, not geography ○ Interactions with people whose practices and ideologies differ from their own ● Grow in knowledge of practices, stigma, and linguistic variants ○ Locale → Vicinity → District → National Speech communities that never meet ● Mass media can provide unidirectional linguistic interaction with many people ● Listeners/viewers/readers share knowledge of practices and norms, though do not interact with one another ● Source of linguistic content to reference and recontextualize Speech networks ● Ways in which people interact matter ● Characterize the types of interactions member have with one another ○ Are the interactions all the same? ○ Are people’s relationships to the group all the same? ● Memberships can change over time Multiplex vs uniplex Communities of practice in Michigan high school ● Jocks and Burnouts both value “coolness” ● Nerds
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