SOC 204 Week 2 Lecture Notes
SOC 204 Week 2 Lecture Notes SOC 204
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Scott Morrison on Friday April 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 204 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. C.J. Pascoe in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology in Social Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/03/15
SOC 204 Lecture Notes Week 2 More on Functionalism Durkheim Durkheim focused on what held society together when labor was so strongly divided high division of labor means highly specialized jobs that tend to push groups of people apart rather than everyone hunting and gathering for instance He believed that culture a shared system of values norms and beliefs was the glue that held society in place Culture centers around totemic symbols or sacred symbols sacred can refer to secular objects like the Duck mascot Puddles Everyone loves Puddles Another example would be he American ag To disrespect the American ag is considered profane the opposite of sacred People unite around preserving the sacred and denouncing the profane Collective Effervescence Gathering around sacred things and engaging in group activities eg a football game Activities such as this bring society together Anomie A state of normlessness when the social norms of the situation you are in are not known to you Anomie is a big threat to society with enough Anomie society will diminish much like post earthquake Haiti many people committed suicide due to feelings of normlessness in the newly destroyed infrastructure of the country More on the Chicago School Cooley Mead and Wirth and WEB DuBois Jane Addams Cooley Mead and Wirth were interested in the lives and societal problems of people living in the inner city These three are considered the main thinkers of the Chicago school WEB DuBois and Jane Addams who contributed just as much are often written off due to race and gender bias Symbolic Interaction the interactions between individuals and how they form meanings interactions with the social world and the forming of meanings through these interactions is the basis of individuals39 motivations and reasoning behind their actions e g the only reason a stop sign actually means stop is because everyone else says it does Critical Sociology Based on inequality critical sociology examines inequality the origins of inequality why the inequality remains and how the inequality is dealt with and perpetuated in everyday life e g feminism Macrotheory Microtheory and Midrange Theory Macrotheory sociological theory involving broad sweeping concepts and phenomena that span across large populations or countries examples include symbolic interactionism when applied to huge populations functionalism and con ict theory Microtheory sociological theory involving interactions between individuals e g bathroom etiquette Symbolic interactionism can be microtheory when applied to small groups of individual people MidRange Theory Big concepts that often make themselves evident in both large and small groups of people critical sociology like feminism tends to give a lot of examples of both large and small groups of people being affected Socialization and Social Construction Socialization is based largely off of symbolic interactionism For instance a cockroach Do you step on it or do you cook and eat it If you step on it you have been socialized to believe bugs are gross If you cook and eat it you have been socialized to believe bugs are delicious and nutritious Two very different socially derived meanings and both are correct in different parts of the world Intersubj ectivity Things are true only as long as we agree they are We agree not to eat dogs because we agree that we love dogs Reality can only be produced by people agreeing that something is real When reality is challenged by disagreement people get very upset Is the dress black and blue or white and gold Look this up if you don39t know what I mean very interesting Lots of people angry over just a dress It39s not just a dress reality was challenged Socialization The process by which humans learn the norms rules and expectations culture of society by being immersed in that society Alternatively how we learn to be functioning members of society Norms The unstated implicit rules of everyday life Norms are shared and agreed upon among groups of people Norms govern our behavior Norms are enforced by positive and negative sanctions rewards and punishments The Three Levels of Social Norms Folkways Mores and Laws Folkways The gentlest of norms these include mild rules such as no elbows on the table no standing on tables at a fancy restaurant or no sampling from bulk bins If violated you may be scolded or looked at funny Mores MOREays More severe than folkways these include deeper societal symbolism Desecrating the American Flag would be a violation of a more Violation of mores results in responses of anger sometimes violence or casting out of society a negative sanction Laws The harshest of norms Not only backed up by social sanctions but by government sanctions Punishment can be as severe as the death penalty Norms are learned through socialization The Three Tiers of Socialization Primary Secondary and Alternative Primary The lowest level e g children learning not to lick everything or not to announce when they need to use the restroom or if they have just done so in an inappropriate place Secondary Built on a foundation of primary socialization secondary socialization involves learning to function in speci c roles includes things such as learning how to use fancy cutlery or how to give a political speech Alternative The hardest form of socialization alternative socialization occurs when a person39s present socialization is broken down entirely and they are resocialized from the ground up can often be seen in total institutions like the military Agents of Socialization who socializes us Who teaches us the norms Family Peersgt just as in uential as family School Mass Mediagt often does more harm than good Socialization can produce inequality Concerted Cultivation The process of middleclass parental socialization of children The child39s time is structured and regulated the child is pushed to participate and practice in as many extracurricular activities as possible in order to maximize potential reproduces the uppermiddle class Expensive to do Natural Development The process of workingclass socialization of children The parents do not structure the child39s free time Often the child simply spends time with friends The Products of Socialization The Self 1 Me Significant Other Generalized Other The Self your personality the separation of you from other people The self is stable and unchanging It is produced through socialization I the active impulsive portion of the self The I only exists when it is doing something I drank too much last night Me The portion of the self that judges the I I took a bad picture and that makes me feel ugly Possibly can be de ned by the conscience Significant Other Any loved one A child39s rst socialization often comes from significant others Generalized Other The general public throughout socialization we learn an expectation of what the generalized other expects from us The generalized other expects simple things from us not to punch people not to pee on people39s feet The generalized other also expects larger things like devotion to a god or enthusiastic patriotism Sometimes the expectations of the significant other con ict with those of the generalized other this leads to significant distress in a person Cooley and Mead Chicago School were the rst to theorize the self They believed that the self develops out of social interaction Cooley developed the Looking Glass Self you develop and shape yourself based on how you imagine other people perceive and judge you This is how we develop our self regard Children use imaginary friends as a sort of practice for the looking glass self they don39t have a lot of people to speculate that kind of feedback from so they pretend Children in a sense can socialize themselves to an extent Mead improved upon the looking glass self He believed that signi cant others also help us learn in this way They help us develop a sense of societal norms in little gentle tidbits while we are still young without throwing us into it full force This is how we form our conception of the generalized other