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Intro to Ecology and Behavioral Ecology

by: Bree Scalzo

Intro to Ecology and Behavioral Ecology BIOSC

Marketplace > Biology > BIOSC > Intro to Ecology and Behavioral Ecology
Bree Scalzo
Foundations of Biology 2
Dr. Swiganova

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About this Document

These are the book notes. I highlighted in blue what Swig went over in class and then I added in purple what was not in the book that was reviewed in class.
Foundations of Biology 2
Dr. Swiganova
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bree Scalzo on Friday April 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOSC at a university taught by Dr. Swiganova in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 152 views.


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Date Created: 04/03/15
Chapter 52 An Introduction to Ecology The goal is to understand the distribution and abundance of organisms 521 Levels of Ecology When biologists study population ecology they focus on how the number and distribution of individuals in a population change over time i Community ecologists ask questions about the nature of the interactions between species and the consequences of those interactions i Abioticljnonliving includes air water soil etc ii Biologists study how nutrients and energy move among organisms and through the surrounding atmosphere and soil or water 5 Global Ecology a Biospherelja thin zone surrounding the Earth where all life exists The sum of all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems i There are many human impacts on the biosphere 6 Conservation Biology a Conservation biologyljthe effort to study preserve and restore threatened genetic diversity in populations species diversity in communities and ecosystem functions 522 What Determines the and Abundance of Organisms Biogeographyljthe study of how organisms are distributed geographically Enzymes from different organisms may function best at different temperatures 100 50 GllUCOSE lph05phate Glucose phosphate fromlbafterlum that from bacterium that S l IIII mSIde humans lives in hot springs Relative activity 75 Rangeljgeographic distribution 20 3390 4390 5390 6390 770 do 970 160 Temperature C 3 Past Abiotic and Biotic Factors In uence Present Patterns a The landforms and oceans that may appear static now have been constant ux for the entire history of life i Ex Mountains rise and fall islands and lakes form and disappear continents crash together and break apart b Dispersalljmovement of individuals form their place of origin to the location where they live and breed as adults i These events have an effect on dispersal rates d The In uence of Humans i Humans have transported thousands of plants birds insects and other species across physical barriers to new locations purposefully or by accident ii Exotic speciesone that is not native to an environment 4 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Interact a The range of every species on Earth is limited by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors that occurred in the past and that occur in the present 523 Climate Patterns Climatethe prevailing longterm weather conditions found in an area Weatherconsists of the speci c shortterm atmospheric conditions of temperature precipitation sunlight and wind 1 Why is the Tropics Wet a When average annual rainfall is mapped for regions around the globe it is clear that areas along the equator receive the most moisture In contrast locations about 300 latitude north and south of the equator are among the driest on the planet S a If Earth did not tilt on its axis there would be no seasons b While the presence of mountain ranges tends to produce extremes in precipitation the presence of an ocean has a moderating in uence on temperature i Water has a high speci c heat so it has a high capacity for storing heat energy Aka it is cooler near the ocean than miles inland 524 Types of Terrestrial Biomes IF 1 Natural Biomes a Different ecosystems may belong to the same biome b Things that determine climate i Temperaturedoes not effect much because it ii Moisture HL Suanht iv Wing c The nature of the terrestrial biome that develops in a particular region is governed by i Average annual precipitation and temperature ii Annual variation in temperature and precipitation 1 Each biome contains specie that are adapted to a particular temperature and moisture regime d Net Primary Productivitytotal amount of carbon that is xed per year minus the amount that is oxidized during cellular respiration i Biomassljl xed carbon that is consume din cellular respiration provides energy for the organism but is not used for growth ii Aboveground biomassthe total mass of living plants excluding roots Measured to estimate NPP 2 Anthropogenic Biomes a More than 75 of Earth s icefree land shows evidence of direct alterations by humans i Ex Farming logging urban developments 3 How Will Global Climate Change Affect Terrestrial Biomes a It is now well established that humancaused emissions of greenhouse gases like C02 are causing climate changes b Biologists use four tools to make predictions about how global climate changes will affect the overall distribution of life i Simulation studies Observational studies iii Historical studies iv Experiments 1 Studies show that over species diversity decreases and grasses and shrubs increase while mosses and lichens decrease c Increases in average global temperature are increasing variability in temperature and precipitation Makes climate change more extreme 525 Types of Aquatic Biomes 1 Salinity a Salinity proportions of solutes dissolved in water determines this It is generally measured in number of grams of solute per kilogram of water b Salinity has dramatic effects on osmosis and water balance in organisms 2 Water Depth a Water absorbs and scatters so the amount and types of wavelengths available to organisms Light productivity has a major in uence on productivity b Turbiditycloudiness of water which is an important determinant of light penetration 3 Water Flow a Water movement is a critical factor in aquatic ecosystems because it presents a physical challenge It can literally sweep organisms away F RDCESS AN quotPWEILLI NE 1K Winds blow Aiong the coast of Peru the prevaiiing winds blow nm lh movin water at the surface 2 Surface water moves As the Earth rotates the mating surface water is famed offshore 3 Upweiling As surface water leaves iterEpmcedby nutrientlad en water welliing up from the bottom 5 How Are Aquatic Biomes P wnmnnam Affected by Humans f a Direct Effects b Indirect Effects L11 Ea are 41 iii Whigr atm39tifiicartiun lanaiin 239 Skating tumm u at I 1i mm luu ilr Pho c 39 ZONE Aphd c zone h 10 a b C 11 a 12 a b L d e 13 a b c d 9 14 a b c E e f g 15 a b L Nutrient rich Higher productivity i Limiting factorHability to adapt to changing salinity light availability and frequent storms and oods Marine Environment The Ocean Nutrient availability deterred by water movement Heterogeous availability of sunlight oxygen nutrients and physical movement of water Which zone is most productive Necrotic zone Terrestrial biomes Dominating factorTemperature and moisture Terrestrialquot Tropic wetrain forest Around equator No seasonality High productivity Microhabitats High species diversity ils the soil nutrient rich No because the nutrients are used up because there are so many plants iiLimiting factor Nutrient availability Terrestrial Subtropical Desserts At 30 degrees lat North and south Adaption to aridity Low productivity How are organisms adapted to aridity i Smaller surface area to limit transpiration ii Waxy cuticle to limit transpiration LNo leaves modi ed leaves such as spines and roots that photorespire What is the limiting factor iLow precipitation Terrestrial Temperate Grasslands Prairies in north America Steppes in central Eurasia Grasses dominate Dense continuous ground cover Fires common i Grow relatively fast with extensive root systems Limiting factormoisture How are grasses adapted to the conditions of this biome iExtensive root system that retain water Terrestrial Temperate Forest Dominated by deciduous lose their leaves yes Leaves accumulate and species Evergreens also common Moderate productivity Chapter 53 Behavioral Ecology Behavioral ecologyljstudy of how organisms respond to a particular stimuli from their environments 531 An Introduction to Behavioral Ecology 1 Proximate and Ultimate Causation i It s important to recognize that efforts to explain behavior at the proximate and ultimate levels are complementary To understand what an organism is doing biologists want to know how the behavior happens and why c Argentine Ant Behavior i Territoriesljfeeding areas ii Argentine ants ght for their territories d Proximate Causes i Identify each other through sent on the exoskeletons and there is low genetic diversity so they think other species are their own species e Ultimate Causes i Due to bottleneck effects 2 Types of Behavior An Overview ii Some behaviors are exible in response to environmental conditions c Flexible Learned Behaviors Often Involved Choice i Cost bene t analysisljanimals appear to weigh the costs and bene ts of responding to a particular situation in various wars Costs and bene ts are measured in terms of their impact on tness 1 Decisions made by nonhuman organisms are not conscious so far as we know 2 Genomes are shaped by taking in information and directing behavior that is likely to pass that genome onto the next generation d Five Questions in Behavioral Ecology 532 What Should I Eat 1 Proximate Causes Foraging Alleles in Drosophila melanogaster 2 Ultimate Causes Optimal Foraging a Introduction to i Optimal foraging that When biologists set out to study why animals forage in a particular way they usually start by assuming that individuals make decisions to they take in given the while they re at it i This study was insightful because 533 Who Should I Mate With 1 Proximate Causes a Testosterone and Estradiol b Testing the Effects of Light and Social Stimulation i Results Two types of stimulation are necessary to produce the hormonal changes that lead to sexual behavior Females need to experience Visual Cues from Males Trigger Females Readinessl c Conclusion 2 Ultimate Causes Sexual Selection a Data on mate choice in anolis lizards reinforce a central theme of this chapter Animals usually make decision in a way that maximizes their tness 534 Where Should I Live Migrationthe longdistance movement of a population associated with a change of seasons a Three categories of navigation 1 Circadian clockexists in organisms and maintains a 24hour rhythm of chemical activity 535 How Should I Communicate 0 Communicationlja signal from one individual modi es the behavior of recipient individuals 0 Signalljany informationcontaining behavior or characteristic 0 By de nition communication is a social process For communication to occur it is not enough that is signal is sent the signal must be received and acted on 1 a The Dance Hypothesis i Bees danced when they returned to the hive and when they returned to the food source with unmarked bees b Communicating Directions and Distances i Honeybees do not have large brains yet they are capable of symbolic language a One over the most general observations about i b Each mode of communication has advantages and disadvantages 3 When is Communication Honest of Deceitful a At the ultimate level one of the questions that biologists ask about communication concerns the quality of the information but is it reliable 536 When Should I Cooperate iii Alleles associated with altruistic behavior will be favored by natural selection because close relatives are very likely to have a copies of the altruistic alleles c Inclusive Fitness I Hamilton s rule is important because it shows that individuals can pass on their alleles to the next generation not only by having their one offspring but also by helping close relatives produce more offspring ii Inclusive fitnesscombination of direct and indirect fitness components d Testing Hamilton s Rule i The same pattern or preferentially dispensing help to kin has been observed in other species of small mammals and birds Most cases of selfsacri cing behavior that have been analyzed to date are consistent with Hamilton s rules are hypothesizes to be the result of kin selection 2 Manipulation a Sometimes altruistic behavior is involuntary b Eosocialityphenomenon where workers sacri ce most or all of their reproduction to help rear the queens offspring 4 Cooperation ad Mutualism a Bene ts of assisting other 5 can exceed costs


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