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Week 12 Notes

by: Rachel McCord

Week 12 Notes P155

Rachel McCord
GPA 3.8
Introduction to Psychology and Brain Sciences
Robert Nosofsky

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About this Document

This week began the topic of brain development, particularly focused in the development of children. It discusses attention and learning, including behavior and language.
Introduction to Psychology and Brain Sciences
Robert Nosofsky
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel McCord on Friday April 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to P155 at Indiana University taught by Robert Nosofsky in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology and Brain Sciences in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 04/03/15
Week 12 Notes Thought 0 Categorization process by which people group together distinct objects into classes that quotbelong together 0 Normal color vision humans can discriminate between a million different colors but we have a different names for them individually 810 a person 0 Cognitive economy can get byjust by grouping things that are similar same consequences makes life easy store less names in memory 0 Inference once we form categories it allows us to reason and make inferences about what might happen 0 Categories in the natural world are quotilldefined I No simple definitions I Category members vary in their quotgoodnessquot or quottypicalityquot o Objects either satisfies the definition or it fails to If two objects satisfy the definition of the category then they should be equal However we compare in quotgoodnessquot or quottypicalityquot 0 Ex robins are rated as quotbetterquot birds than ostriches I Sports football or weightlifting I Crime murder vagrancy I Typically influences the mental processing of categories 0 Sentence verification paradigm 0 Fast 9 A robin is a bird 0 Slow 9 An ostrich is a bird I People are faster to verify typical members than atypical ones Reasons for Categorization I Fuzzy boundaries I Ex pumpkin fruit or vegetable Fruit I Clothing handkerchief o What holds natural categories together I Family resemblance principlestructure members of a category tend to share characteristic features but it is not necessary for each member to have them all 0 The more characteristics you have the more typical of the category you are I Prototype the best or most typical member of a category ideal 0 According to prototype theory categories are stored in the mind by their prototype category Development Chapter 4 0 Tools of Investigation How to study development 0 Longitudinal Design I The same people are studied repeatedly over time I Very controlled which is good but difficult to conduct big commitment for subjects o CrossSectional Design I Different ages are compared at the same time I Study in groups different ages at the same time I Not as controlled but more practical so more common 0 Preference Technique I Measure looking times or participation times for alternative visual displays or events 0 Habituation Technique I Measure decline in responsiveness to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented infants prefer novelty I Children get bored easily 0 Using Rewards I Study perception and memory by testing for performance or rewarded behaviors 0 Brain Growth During Infancy 0 Brain Growth I At birth brain is 25 of its final weight I Reaches 75 of adult size by age 2 I Most growth is in sizecomplexity of neurons not addition of new neurons 0 When born all the neurons of the brain are already there 0 In fact there are almost more than there will be because some neurons will die early on I Environment affects brain development principle of plasticity o The Aging Brain 0 Neurons do die with age I However they can continue to increase in complexity o Dementia loss in mental functioning caused by physical changed in the brain I Fewer than 1 of those younger than 65 have dementia I About 20 over 80 have dementia o Perceptual Development 0 Is depth perception innate or learned I Gibson s visual cliff experiments I Texture gradient used as cue to depth 0 Fine grained flooring looked far away other is sparse and looks close to the ground covered by glass to make safe I Even infant animals and humans avoided the quotfarquot side the dense texture I Supports idea that much of depth perception is innately wired into the brain 0 Memory Development 0 Infantile Amnesia I The common inability of adults to remember the earliest years of their cthhood I Must study in children 0 How good is a child s memory for their own experiences I In a study they tied a string to infants foot anytime infant kicked leg or foot cause a mobile to shake rewarded a period of time later tied string to infant foot and it isn t tied to mobile if child remembers that the shaking caused excitement they ll start shaking again Otherwise they won t This is an example of rewarding technique Tested memory in infants of different ages I In older children made trains move by pressing a button 0 Memory and Aging 0 Older people have to retrieve memory on their own 0 Memory in older people fade even if you re healthy 0 Most trouble in recall not in recognition Development of Language 0 Categories of speech sound 0 Phonemes I Smallest unit of sound in a language 0 quotbquot quotpquot quotdquot quotchquot 0 Various phonemes from an acoustic point of view that are very similar and can be difficult to tell apart p and b sounds 0 Some letters can create multiple phonemes such as quotcquot can be soft and hard with two different sounds I Children are born with the ability to discriminate between distinct phenomes in w language 0 Some sounds aren t relevant to a language 0 Child s brain can lose ability to make distinction if that minute distinction isn t relevant for the language I But they soon loi the ability to discriminate sounds that are the m phonemes in their own language 0 Ex Japanese quotrquot vs quotIquot 0 Language Learning I Major Debate 0 Behavioral psychologists Skinner o Argue that language is just a complex behavior i Imitation and conditioning o Chomsky linguist o Argues that behavioral approach is implausible i Productivity people product infinite variety of sentences ii Regularity sentences obey and abstract set of syntactic rules iii Syntax the rules for combining words into sentences 1 quotcolorless green ideas sleep furiously 2 quotgreen sleep colorless furiously ideas iv Grammar the rules of language that allow one to combine symbols to create meaning 0 Evidence for rule learning I 3stage learning of past tense of irregular verbs I General rule add quotedquot to present tense to create past tense I Some verbs are irregular 0 Go Went 0 Stages of Irregular verb past tense I Stage 1 Children start by correctly producing past tense of irregulars I Stage 2 Overgeneralize the abstract rule apply quotedquot rule to irregulars 0 Go 9 Goed 0 Run 9 Runned I Stage 3 Memorize the exceptions to the rule The Development of Thought Piaget s Work 0 Jean Piaget Swiss scholar examined development of children s thought 0 Children think organize the world meaningfully but differently than adults 0 Schemata Mental models guiding and interpreting experiences 0 Inaccurate early in childhood 0 Become more adultlike throughout childhood 0 How Schemata Change 0 Assimilation Fitting experiences into schemaa I Example Seeing a horse for the first time and classifying it as a quotdoggiequot 0 Accommodation Changing schemata to incorporate new experiences I Example Creating a new category called quothorsesquot 0 Piaget s Stages 0 Children s thought develops systematically in a series of four stages I Sensorimotor period ages 02 I Preoperational period ages 27 I Concrete operational period ages 711 I Formal operational period age 11 0 Sensorimotor period ages 02 I Schemata revolve around babies sensory motor abilities I Early in first year babies lack object permanence They fail to realize that objects still exist when out of sight 0 By age 1 Can remember represent objects systematically The Shape Bias theory by Dr Smith Presented by Elizabeth 0 The quotGavagaiquot Problem 0 Ex In a foreign land and don t know the language how do you figure out what things mean 0 How do children come to understand what we are talking about 0 That is how do they come to map referents to objects 0 How do they extend names they earn to other objects of the same kind 0 The Shape Bias 0 Children have a tendency to extend novel names to shape matches over color or texture matches This tendency develops I 2 years 9 3 years 9 adultlike I Increases in strength and in context Tendency become both more robust and more generalized over the course of development I Younger children more likely to show it in novel name extension tasks than non naming tasks Training the Shape Bias I 17 month old children younger than would normally show a shape bias I Repeatedly played with objects in categories organized by shape I Extended trained names to novel instances AND extended novel names to novel instances I Had explosive vocabulary growth for object names 256 increase in 8 weeks while control children only had 78 increase I Names of objects are generally named by the shape category Individual differences in the shape bias I Latetalkers MCDIs lt 30th percentile did not show shape bias in novel name extension task 0 May be a tendency to extend name to texture matches for these cthren 0 Typically developing children extend texture matches to nonsolid objects or animate objects but not solid objects I Children with Specific Language Impairment SLI did not show a shape bias in a name extension Critics of the Attentional Learning Account I Cimpian amp Markman 2005 argued that the shape bias is an experimental artifact 0 When learning novel names for KNOWN objects children sometimes extended by shape and sometimes did not I Booth Waxman amp Huang 2005 argued that the basis of the shape bias is not attentional learning but conceptual knowledge 0 Describing objects with words reflecting animacy led to name extension patterns typical of animals 0 Dr Smith says this does not actually go against the shape bias


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