Chapter 9 notes
Chapter 9 notes BME3403 EABS
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39l39lllRl lll39l l Chapter 9 rr rmr NEW born gqg Th nag W S Chg ClD39K v Evolution of the Nervous System Nerve net jellyfish Simple brain amp nerve cord fatworm 39 Brain amp nerve cord with ganglia earthworm Increasing forebrain fish bird amp human Olfactory sh r Complex behavior birds Reasoning amp cognition humans wait b5 bl w i n St W WAmm 0K Com CWHLU39HMA wlM quotH4 3W3 Emergent properties of the nervous system Anatomy and functions of the CNS Divisions of the brain and what each controls About this Chapter Integration of complex pathways for behavior Language memory and others Actoran li r w l 35 y 3033 r I mth 3 S75ml 39ltoootrcls GUS EWl human 5 rhohr VLQKM OVLS VCSVonSe 64mm LardEn to m YWSch g 6M1 I rm lt1 V U o 0 9n owl s r SillT fwj Small Evolution of the Nervous System Mouth 77 Stihpharyr rgoal gannhon Ventral HerJr cord min gargin Esophagus a Newa net of ghllyfrfih b The Hermanr nervous system has n urzrndwo brain 2 TIrs rnrrir m rimmus system has 5 Simple Dram 139111 gingila 35505 a nerve cord rumbm Fcrcbrmr r quot l quot w v f r a v m 158quot r 391 T r 1 d The list lorebrarr 5 small compared to remainder of hrarn e The gauge iorehrarn is large i The human orcbrmn icereurumi dominates the brain Figure N Evolution 0139 in nervous system Embryonic Deveioprrient of Nervous Embryonic Development of Nervous Svstem S v S t e m a A Lwcc x human embryo shem39ng the anlena end of he neural lune wmcn has v 1 specta lzedmic uee braunregiom Neural plate to neural tube 7 a v I 39 Neurai crest PNS I 7 a 1 A m m Antenor forms bram A 1 MW I F bu Mdba pma Forebrain C are m nn 7 quot I Midbrain M I In 3y embryo lomnlvim Hmdbram C cbtklum Hollow ventricles b A 6 weeks me name tube has dncrenmlco ms the braln cl 87 11 weeks a es39nhwomc developmm me regior s mast ax binn Tm mam spaces summ m the ems Jran m ml 12 cerebrum Is noticeznry we tap sechw va momsm9 venmcres a the ham rsve Fug 95 mzm ma 039 the Dmer dms an or we txann quot gt7 4 Cc39obru39n Spmal cord T V r 39 r A Q1 39 r 39 351quot egg Jul a O 39I3Ma 39 I f 3 Spmr 39 card 4m 23 any mnhryo dorsal mam Figure 93 ac T he ncuml lube specializes into the six major regions of the nervous a39slcm Figure 92 The embryonic nervous system rlcvclups mm a Imliow tube grain CHHA z 340 quotw SrZe 0m NP 4W C weer I 739 Mquot 139 x i EEK W ILQVCI 31h Cu Adult Brain Newborn Bram Dame 2 r m thh Painc razor Hume1h Sp 3 of Harvard Jwersnv Stephen Man I l Cambium g UMW UWgt 35 wrrm Yd anunl39bm uu lrm lOu 39lbuch Om areal in was 7 Arm A ll Slums m an inter Lp Mr 5 12 be mml h j wmlncb AV Q quotn h e mail bro p Core Central Nervous System Overview Protecting the Brain SECTIONAL VIEWS OF THE CNS Brain Spinal cord A 9 ON 39J lbw 2le 65 A W wr CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM POSTERIOR VIEW Hair skin cranium Venous sinus blood erebrospinal fluid Dr 5 6mm C quot39 39 quot P A Of m 3 c Perodor vhw ol spinal cord and nnobm Y Whlema cr ll aooa Jr 9mm 17 mam 3 K Figure 943 ANATOMY SUMMARY Thu Smirnl Ncwous Syslcm r Figure 941 c ANM OMY s ARY The Ccnlml Ncn39ous gymm lav um Spinal L Fanial NtY39YC 3 W ICyh GUS Uw g ilmu n dmmahcn o W an mges mammals tomes huhn lmlc SVISH m 3 390 homes a n so g 597 L2 D R 39 fV 39 l 39 The Brain 5 Ventricular System 3 endermg O B r ncu ar SyStem m ANY WNWde 3 Q8471 Lateral ventricles l V Interventricular foramen Third ventricle p a Cerebral aqueduct Fourth ventricle Central canal lateral View anterior View 0y by u mu o xa brain l W Twit mum W CW LQMS Ur 0mm 02MB mmeim brain quotis YWCRAX ox oulg Jrlrxolr ORVM K1 idnb39rOiA KennS l ASM UJKS Wlbj iiw ms mibml WWMHOV cs is mama by Tu choroid Wows fills 39 i W39Mchs i ce guio arachnoid SPQQQ cSF Cerebrospinal Fluid Ventricular System with Superimposed Brain Produced by choroid plexus Fills ventricles amp subarachnoid space 0 A fluid pillow that floats the brain Exchange transport l W From blood 39 A i u A 16 To brain tissue 0C mxa L WWNB quot TS in bchujsxe n39tu men I ruge 539 iin filmiii OHM btoool p o lympoihn i39c system m bf 01 0 Sommei S39yslcm Alec brow Madam caus ie by lww 3h to as quot wisen mfg S LW quotJFCQ C Si rem ct St Bind 65 ver Th6 br CKt l Sb we CCkl i i e i hil g 1 Sign qo tu 1 Shp DR Cti him ahai OFmallu m d uu u ice up CSF Functions CSF Composmon The CSF has several functions A comparison of the composition of CSF and plasma reveals that it provides physical support for the brain 1 CSF proteins are 1 that of plasma it protects against acute changes in arterial and venous blood pressure 2 CSF calcium levels are 50 that of plasma it is a route of waste excretion replacing in many ways the function of lymphatics the brain has no lymphatics CSF glucose levels are 60 that of plasma CSF chloride and magnesium levels are higher than plasma C02 diffuses rapidly and HC03 slowly from the plasma into the CSF WP it is involved in intracerebral transport ex 3131 2a it helps maintain the ionic homeostasis Of the CNS i llquot H3g i x i 1 1 i quotLOrt xcomplh may for iihxivni 39iwopin Bewsmj iQif l WM 39 T9 Q mudin erce0M Wong Wotw l h Mm mains 7 bowWith twigs unpas quot quot A E VSW ll ig 9 smilim Spinal Tap Clinically Relevant CSF information Important information on CSF can be derived from the following parameters 1 opening pressure gross appearance total and differential cell count bacterial culture and sensitivity protein and glucose 6 analysis of immunoglobulins detect chronic CNS inflammatory conditions 7 cytology detect malignant cells VFW CSF Appearance clear and colourless normal 7 39 r r 9 2 i is indicates the presence of blood The appearance of fresh p V i A traumatic tap blood vessel damaged as the needle enters the spinal canal will be indicated by the presence of blood in the first sample with the disappearance of blood in subsequent samples be yellow xanthochroic CSF suggests that a subarachnoid hemorrhage has 1 0 in the CNS by the breakdown of hemoglobin released from ABC39s This indicates the presence of white cells and is suggestive of a CNS ill c nu Op M38 a V l r US J 1 4 J 59 bra 1 D Bram wads co 346 39N survive CSF Cell Counts 5m s iii fi i ormally contains a small number of cell lament iiimater 39 and the total cell count is less than 5 cells cu mm An increase in cell counts suggests either an nfection of the CNS or a number of CNS pathological conditions The differential cell count provides further dingrhe possible cause of the CNS disease L ii ifl T39iififlleib j is indicates a bacterial meningitis Other causes of an increased ount include a cerebral abscess following seizures and following CNS hemorrhage m 63936 C his indicates a viral meningitis Lymphocyte counts are also elevated in 39 39 p ilis fungal and parasitic infections Degenerative diseases of the CNS is will also generate elevated lymphocyte counts achieved by chemotherapy The bloodbrain barrier prevents chemotherapeutic drugs from reaching the CNS and allows leukemic cells to escape treatment 5m 0346 jM Junohom C expiiltonxi A C Min imf infection 37 OF iMf xhi 391 S if nemesime i aiig 19mlwssivc pllbw 73 ch altCc scl0n43gtl Cerebrospinal Fluid lb Combininme fluid is scamrod mm the ventricles am quotam mougm tho subaracmm space when it mhons the central nervous system Chadd time u Cwabrospmal llu ls reabsorbed back into lhe blood at wean lingemka pvqecrim oi the ararmcid membrane called lei Villi falsify 2 lug 3 1 P 1 Duramnlcr S Ns Lama er i Immrlnyen be zachmin I Sumch space space 2 The choroid plexus transports ions and mania from the blood mlo the cembrospinal 11m membrane Dora mater Figure 9 5 ANATOMY SUMMARY Cucbrospiiml Fluid Circle of Willis the 7 sgiw totLL Lem W bQ YLme t U0 The route 0t blood within the head The route of blood within the head The route of blood within the head The route of blood within the head The route of blood within the head bum i th mm Jim Bum mater ampi thQ Ammo unctu uu Tu Mohn noial is w Cg The route of blood within the head 39DOQ 7 00 bS L venous Sinuson 039 Hum Mate The route of blood within the head 0 Superior cerebral veins Superior sagitlal sinus Superficial middle cerebral vein Sigmoid sinus Transverse sinus Internal jugular vein msmum Irmwmu nwnrwb v wum m 03kg gym m S Cortical capillary vasculature rm i a quotM 39x quot 41I 5 3 34 5 i3 gimme WNWKg macho bx rim gloom views 42L mi Lula xhbn 395 w quotl M bran3 CSF return 0 venous blood Arachnoid granulations Superior sagittal sinus Emissary vein Q C B 0 00 0 Skull Dura Subdural space 39 Subarachnoir space Pia Epidural vein p Vein Cortex Artery Dura Arachnoid From Brodal 1 R v Jl Ollilxw in Vi bw lquot r 39 mm mw Vt Dingo CL Scam 3 WyeM of NMpo r x L V57rm j loom Cl l vimpmiric 9pm 4Smxwf WSW surge vessels in Suhcn ucmoid space B OOd Bram Bamer Extensive capillaries amp sinuses pmk V 0 n ampa Tightjunctions limit permeability Astrocyte foot processes secrete paracrines T o Protects brain hormones amp circulating chemicals 0 O Many glucose transporters W j Astrocylelootprocesses quot emote pamcnnoslhal 39 quot promoluligm manor liim almri I Tight junction fircwnls 39 solute movement beiween endomelial cell Figure 941 The blowbrain barrier I chllimas 39 barrier M mg EC 1 7 EMU iLL D15ULOV1LS W C5 Emman amq CQHS Lllwd meg MW laxum Luglg q Mc an w glaod Wp hwamle mm Wm WM WW mtdullm quotDblum jcm Blood Brain Barrier What cerebral capillaries have Tight continuous quintuplelayered intercellular junctions low wall thickness 02 urn higher mitochondrial content thick basement membrane What cerebral capillaries don39t have fenestrations V 39 lots of vesicles uid lled bulk transport channels ll bulb I cranial n vvts or lisi39mol mun3 brmt39n S C chm ll ll 6Aquot 1 a Spinal Cord Regions Figure 942 ANA I OMY SUMMARY 39lhc Central Nervous Syslem CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM POSTERIDR VIEW W l ti igt Lew11ml bwt VCS WOW all 122 lolmin KM 3999 quot Hr ngV al WW WW WWH Lv mls or gimde lOerrfF Blood Brain Barrier Allows passagetransport of small molecules H20 02 C02 lipophilic molecules EtOH heroin passive transport of glucose active transport of amino acidsNT precursors Prevents passage of larger moleculWarged molecules etc cl 0 PCil39nCvLL 9 Q l lCll l g ow g l n C4 3 Chm j 90 SUV 3 W U l b iquot ini ofm 9275 WI 39 539 I I g n z 9 l quotP39JlJa 13 39 The Skeleton 7th Cervical Vertebra quot Isl Rib quot Claviclc 1mh Rib 1st Lumbar Vertebra 51h Lumbar Vertebra Ilium FlG l THE SKELETON PosteriorVicw pm Axum 13 lb 3 llcivrl hm Ul ME CQUK OSQOsiS Spinal Column Jykbvmoxc FIG 2 THE VERTEBHAL COLUMN Lateral View f i V1 m jw bS h hl amuse w 04 9 W quot of 119 mm ofth quot11gt 59ng m ff Lawn inwmm SOWSMLj p I H x U I n suhlgr quot 007ij MT L mm W 5 7 0 mUSCLzJ ix 33920qu S Normal spine quotJU39JW OOVF gt f 12 5 in 4 I quotEQu w 3 Y ampUvquotC Agn bfg i39 m S 143 AW 7 M 39 4mm rimohm Lubqram oil t cz rC Anatomy of Various Vertebrae Anatomy of a Vertebrae AlcERVlCAL M Spinous Process Superior Articular Facet sp39quot n39v spmcess Verteb Foramen 1x Lamina Rib 39 mb Forarnen 39 Superior Articular Facet Transversurn quot r 5 Lamina for Verteb 39w ral Artery 39 39 Costptransverse Joml Costnvertehral Joint Body Vertebral Body S p quot 39 A 39w39quot FIG 4 momcrc VERTEBRA WITH RIBS Superior View Each rib articulates with the transverse process of the costotmnsvcrse joint and with the costovcnebral 39oint g of the vertebral bodY also with the body of the a jacent a vertebra not shown Q W Vertebral quot Foramen c A Superior Artieular Facet w 39 S supemquot monkquot Pmmss Transverse Process 3 R i Pmu ss LKLquot Costal Facet V V Cl LUMBAR Adj 1 l v 39 Intewertebral Foramen 05 k S J V N x V SUchgEet w m S 5 w 39 39 39i quot lnfgrior Articular Vertebral I T39ansve39sc QU Q r N r S izzzr oces F I Procese vbu r P 5 oramen Q J 3 V I Body W FIG 3 VERTEBRAE Superior View Costal Facet FIG 5 THORACIC VERTEBRAE Lateral View CQQ x mom 5369 55 N f v hung Q Uis m5 k Lumbar Disc S inal Cord Or anization Herniation p g Dendrites amp terminals Spinal reflex integrating center Ojr 0w MOkHtr Bundles of myelinated axons Ascending tracts sensory 0 UVS Descending tracts motor Dorsal roots Ventral roots LU k H 9 A LOW inxgi 44 I tum jBO 1414 v tiwnj b0 kjwf OULCM 39 Spinal Cord Organization Brain Overview a One segmem oi spinal cord veniral View showing b Gray moire consisis oi smsory and motor nuclei as pairs nerves winmm WWW mm Trillion interneurons fill the brain n C KDW S Dorsal mol w BMW Wm 9m I up to 200000 synapses each cam39essensory Kalli J slim 39 39 I I a K Bram lelSlonS 37 i lrool use 39 enra I carries effereer quot motor Cerebrum OU hi l m l I H m in quot quot quotquot 39 Diencephalons was I quotwales dad alarms Autonomic ailment nuclei Midbmin a c b n 39 c w I v ms31mmgriz39msz sis m ere e m be M 3Q 1 LDxn mac1h 0113 Tuthe Frcrnthe Pons n BE i Meduila oblongata 4 DW YUMVD S Ascending tracts carry sansoty unionnaliOn to me brain 039 yi commands to motor neurons Figure 97 Slxxiali lmion in the spinal cord Descending tracts ca l n m 6mm 22 mam mmHum mm PMS r I 8 PVC b rmm marHOW mfolullg gymE thNU fo k Malian n quotPSLoQJ 3 an n39 f O m 39 J7 quotHzn c plan1 Jmho 5 OCUO JL7 i WWquot l 3km mow a gem in 90m cm Rm 3 VividS Kh qublV Nil 3gtgtrdngt dzgomaxh Cth 95mm NMKs CUM5 WW W7 Loom m WE Mm w Lmbnm A Sgn m nl Lora w hmi W 9 b n 5 Brain Overview Brain Stem Overyiew Midbrain Pons amp Medulla 3 39SSZZZESZOW cm 3 is 1mm eye movementcontrol K R brad pa Wuh ve b m breathing signal relay s w involuntary functions J Examples Blood pressure vomiting 25151413Eynamequot an a U P S Network in brain stem V j Arousal sleep pain amp muscle tone cam plus bl 00 Cram 1 a Figure 99bcANTOMYSUMMARY 39lhclirain 8 WW VOW 30 W W w oil alomg a Cranial norire a Paigimjn A ll bp c cl dcjds 5r Spinal Wfring a LN ii at pa Cranial Nerves or mmii Medulla WWUS WW Brain Stem Overview Midbrain Pons amp m mm my Table 94 The Cranial Nerves or brain slam s s 7 NUMBER NAME TYPE FUNCHON quot I I Olfactory Sensory Ollactory smell information from nose Vquot V ll Sensory Vlsualinfonmrion from eyes X quota s 39 I III Motor Eye movement pupil consrriclion lens shape CD1 39U Q 539 lV hodllear Motor Eye movement H i V lriglminal Mixed Sensory lnlonnatlon from face mouth motor signals inf Vl Abducens Motor Eye movement Vll Facial Mixed Sensory for taste efferent signals for rear and r l 1 l salivary glands facial expression Illl Icsubulocomlcar Sensory llcaring and equilibrium IX Glossopharyngeal Mixed Sammy from oral cavily baro and dlemorecepmrs In blood vessels efferenl or swallouing pawlid salivary gland 93an Ti Mixzd Sensory and efferent to many inlernal organs muscles and glands Xl Spinal accessory Motor Muscles of oral cavity some muscles in neck and shoulder XII Hypoglossal Motor Tongue muscles Figure 99aANAronsuMMmvzmcBrain 6 C 39 fable 91239l11eCmnial Nanm ij M mamE b ul UlCLlWQil l l lrbgi g K3 Axeprises an thquot quot V ivquotv w 0108 Stow SVQCanS l8 lYiOSlquot impcrf cml l I m laxQR lWCur39l 7 i lt39 iv1rt rvcll c5 abd QmOMH i i V a l m 9 Y 39 s mmgmw wio mcmwm mamas a micr 39 Diencephalon 3 Additional Functions of Hypothalamus Homeostatic control centers P f l heartrate elay amp sensory integration urinary bladder contraction 711152 39 i i meostatic Functions 4 i Li a 39 2 b39 d mm ox ocin release Hunger Stress vasogressin release Thirst body osmolarity M 39 cniwtrooireleasing hormone releaseml Flightfight pathways 6 n A 5 a21111er u a Ion Anger amp fear My thyrorrogin inhibition g stimulation Coordinates with endocrine system satieg Circadian rhythms neuroendocrine control I g l Gonadotroginreleasing hormone GNRH also known as Luteinizinghormonereleasing hormoneLHRH gugillam dilation shivering lCl m b 06 l o to Ull 1mm 3 fm hon S W Hy POHtal any a Ll s o oi on onquot tax 2 pm WW1 t5 iv i Jrlrf W Pc ilLoii am is g 162quot I 5amp5 1 vi Diencephalon wituitary and Pineal glands 5 a Melatonin Sleep coordination c 9 I le dicnocplulon Figure 910 The dicnccphalon quot 9 Mmli ox i r me or P 1h l quot1L0 mi 9 Em cio or 339 n2 8V M Micki V0 3 lQOSiEr ior quotiivii ow 3 NORDos 3 glean lifOQU Cerebrum Cerebrum Gray and white matter areas Higher brain functions Hemispheres W interconnection 39 z 39 as on Left brain language Right brain special skills CQQ 1v go at balm Figure 916 Cerebral Nomination l igurc 9l l 39lhc tum nuclei c39 quotMIL Il uli nu39li 2m lyv uher 1 kiwiu 8 mesum 393 h CAMVWCh of 39 fmbit mm Wild e i Q l NW E b050 C3309 oSMUx bMIi xarxgr mam WW inqur Awning brain Spaugavi Suns er mosattj CQU L AMSUM More Cerebrum Cingulale gyms plays a role In emotion o A i r x O quot I ii i m Timur L 39 quot riff LIIW s base gang role in emotion WOW gioims paiiicres thalamus W W learning amp memory emo lOn memory NS Maw rmn 4quot E r O l iglichl3111rclimbicsyslcm 2amp6 h F YOU L DL39 i lt2 39 musk 4 THQWO QLLUL n 1 in bin 8 0mm 8 gig Uw v Juge L RIMWM 0 n amp win vrnbcr39 g m m VIC 063 Mu CKCQ S f39 ip amDnan mu Sfcmi gymuh i quot thSOrWRg 39 quot valor M m e SW W QcJL nC Awi077qu j quot39 Nickyg W Cerebral Cortex 3 Cerebrai Cortex quot arm Outer layer of neurons 1mm thick Outer layer of neurons 1mm thick L7 7 earing vision oifaction muscles amp viscera Reasoning information integration Dvux 639 Directingvoiuntary behavior or LUPr iib uod hbe lQLf sYWViSfuui u i A Hfquot 1 w quot7quot rump rm mi L quotswam h Sam K 3 1 Al 3 39uncuunal urn15gt ul lhc cerebral cortex I v 9 Y j W3RSnunl v f I a n gtH WWHAmiphgmiopcpgc m M law 09 ViigiOin on 166 WA Violinif mauijiic lZQSQHOWIGL sold ow arc4739er quotchhL 7 m Gum involves MR oinlizahdm 93w m a bmf ismv M Nun w 4 Vilm Hi ii i uumA mam mi iuliizllug i The Brain of a Government Employee Brushing a little too vigorously in December Vignesh Nageshwaran 11 of Delhi lndia was simultaneously riding his This brain scan of a 44yearold French cml servant published In the journal Lancet reveals his brain bicycle to the orists to pick up flowers for his mother and brusl iing his teeth when to be much smaller than normal The dark area on the scan shows the swollen md lled space that he fell off his bike while attempting a stunt When he fell the toothbrush pierced bus has crowded his skull leaVing little room for his brain Oddly the man s cognitive abilities did not k b f d ff a d b h u H b h d d t I soft palate and entered his skull Nageshwaran was rushed to the hospital where seeg 0 e in Dun y a la re H y 395 unusua y sma ram39 as e was eeme o possess 0quot Y surgeons operated immediately Despite the brush narrowly missing his spinal cord mo em a y E ow norma m e 39gence39 and a crucial blood vessel Nageshwaran has recovered from his mishap ing 3 mi vianu i 44 in In iililnlulig4139nnlmni Lairunit 39urvuigl i nuH39eumi dumm in illlilthu iyA Eli39nliunni iznminy39 W SUWNDKS I ve got a splitting headachel On July 3 2007 a teenage Iraqi insurgent attacked Sgt Dan Powers on the Despite the severity of his injury Powers remained alert as he was rushed to a combat hospital streets of Baghdadplunging a 9inch knife deep into his skull Powers later where surgeons removed the knife seen here in an Xray image He was then airlifted to the recalled that he gun re he had zesn aunfched pcg 523511quot an OHS When United States and taken to Walter Reed Army Medical Center The injury left him barely able to one o Is comfa es 0 39m e a a m e Iquot 395 ea I e rea 3919 9 walk but after a grueling rehabilitation Powers has rejoined his fellow paratroopers of the 118th extent of his injury V MP Company out of Fort Bragg NC Next month Powers a fully quali ed paratrooper once again will be boarding another military plane this one bound for Afghanistan w nm 1 um np39mgh39J Jule e insurean Liz rahquot ugl r idiomquotmun mum illl lIl uuj ri wry3mm unv39lvlm EV m 739 CO mPul ew quot ljr NCL QLCS Mimime mHrul a exitnor lmwmnww f injecb ralt S i PHOCQSW 5 fitm pmfmmjn on m c1 ll LRCITLCJ 0 YES O39 t The one that got away In what Abreu39s father Edilson described to the Brazilian press as a quotmiraclequot the shing spear entered just above Abreu39s left eye and missed the most critical areas of his brain Doctors say he is unlikely to suffer major lasting damage from the accident ABC Emerson de Oliveira Abreu r quired five hours of highrisk surgery after a shing spear which he apparently fired himself ricocheted off rocks and penetrated his head and brain The Associated Press reports Abreu was injured while diving off the coast of Rio de Janeiro The sixinch blade penetrated so deeply into his head that onlythe tip was visible according to family members and authorities ABC 39 tnylz w m r lJ mn ivurvlim tannin Nanum ling x ULJIRJ wl m luv 391quot l hrrr quot4l cn lmmquot39m391trg I 3 SqSl tY OS quotWell Sdnsolmj Salkm lh utmua 0W by Leah er gygmm W m afar S stems 1 p lll30ampjf b ho wbriml Stack goshm The old Knife in the Head Routinel The blade penetraled Wen s head above his right ear and reached down into Wen Wen 38 of central China walked into Jiaotong University clinic in Xi39an with the entire blade of a the nasal cavuy nally e nerglng Into Ins mouth39 surprISIneg It missed knife buried in his head after his father allegedly stabbed him according to a report from Central several major arteries blood vessels and nerves which means that Wen European News One ER nurse reportedly fainted as Wen walked up to reception with the hilt of the k39f k39 tfh h d d ll d t b thquot39 CENOl could make a full recovery according to doctors quoted m the news reporL quot39 e W 39quotg 395 ea 3quot cam yanswere ms quotquot1quot quot 395 quot39er quot quot 5 rapmgr r 1 n s39cim n 339hltl in iir39inhuq 139 1tr1mmt mi wig The Old Arrow through the Head Routinell Now where did I put my car Keysl Elevenyearold Chinese schoolboy Liu Cheong had a brush with death This X ray shows how during a fall 8 ar key penetrated the eyelid of 17 when his friend shot him in the head with a 16 inch arrow according to monthold Nicholas Holdemian of Kentucky reaching his brain While numerous international media reports The arrow entered his skull doctors initially believed that the object had ruptured Nicholas39 eyeball through the eye socket and lodged in the back of his head Somehow the another team of specialists later confirmed that the boy had sustained boy was spared a fatal brain injury no permanent damage l Uf olt inttvciwnl Motor out polr SW W gt quotquot mom alderWM Eloymm w i gum H3QUQ3CS The Old Screwdriver in the Head Routine A 2vear old from Minnesota was treated at the Mayo Clinic in December after she tripped and fell on a screwdriver The tool entered her head above her left eye Fortunately doctors were able to remove the screwdriver without surgery and the girl escaped without major injury according to media reports 67ii35 Ot eiOQCRWMvuL ng l X Ul W 9 Uh 1W 5 i Mm iien Sciquot o39rot39h 4 hogPWA i 9 Lobes of Cerebral Cortex and Associated Coordination of the Brain Functions Integration Wiggggvating s tem From stem reticular fibers weer movement behavior perception P L Cyntn C m tactile sensory Mo h S 0 W VISIon W olfactory auditory amp gustatory Modulates consciousness Distributes neuromodulators a bi u p l M W utomfen39is M Noradrenegic q Serotonergeic lzgmjs gi C N S V 4 I S 0 26 Dopaminergic W I L Cholinergetic W me LU NYC P030 i all thj 7 a A Al We citJr in n s m m m awesyuewz ifm z as as H was nwb oi Wham S Ww39 ii i l 7 D 8 lb Coordination of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei Weins Most physiological systems have rhythmic patterns Sleep REM amp deep sleep Coordination of the Brain Functions Nareplncphrlno c c Dopamine u Ch h 0i t J Mail ini Pgluna Serotonln I Figure 919 The di 39usc modululory sysicms modulate brain l imcu39on dckibi lchoiimi is i lWVDlmtcl will OVR mu W Jmlw EX C ilZQl ttiVLcrg39 CliUij S W dr l HelUULS allowc 4 in ammmmn CoordinatiOn of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep wow Rf MW im Em IEIEG 5 non Hypothalamus limbic amp cortex integration Hem P Complex Pathways of Emotion and Motivation Msure sexual arousal anger amp fear limited cognitive contro quothard to turn offquot mmennnp Frequency 7 7 r 77 r K b esquot increase arousal coordinate goal oriented behavior Alpha waves AWAKE l Awake I W eyessnsed l l t ll R l REM sugai W smart ll Pl lgl r iil Long term emotional states U h 9 l l 0 r S e x l 39 39 quot w i K i l De ressionSSR 39 l smqez Saganr I 5L 4 a 2 p y w I 5 Transition L l i i l A Z 3 95 Stages Stages 3 r Stagei U 4 I g 04 6g l lle OWN TiIT lU m Figure 9 20 Iiiuctmenccpmlogmms Ellis and the sleep cycle man 6 r5 W 93 LlOLY 3L iiiii h Qgccpi cl W quot om EM Steep gt2 ma H 0mg Walls nggocialci w law 59 PM Willey Slowr 5ampng 1 weight lbs c lorgomm 31in nuancer I I a QJuach Complex Pathways of Emotion and Complex Pathways of Learning and Motivation Memory i l 1 2532 39 39 I irxaqmmn m r 7 gt A may 39 773 3quot 25le 4355 iiiquot silk 5 3quot 1 quot1 39 I Assocxative v QbJH Jrlxh j 14le Gil167W m Non associative 2 39 7 quot Kiwi l 7quot twin Hippocampus amp memory traces KEY Short term amp w l m ong term 13 Reflexive quotmuscle memory mmsm quot quot 39 Mamas I39ll jlfl39 r r V 7 l a 0 v v v K 39 1 SOan quot TK x n 1 1 1 1 3 I 3 I we meg 9 LA l 0 OMJ x bum aohnuary IndU CD l JCIOJSD quot7 quotV W V V quotW 77 V V Figure 921 The link between emotions and physiologiwl functions 6 5 l or 79 Br at n CY W A Clll hijl l WS A b quo d Complex39Pathways of Learning and Most Complex Pathways Language and Memory Personality I o Infomation L 39 39 input a u inquot a i M m ra39MaqlTC IV P I Broca39s area P m 55 1 Fe 4 S 7 mm 39 mcessmg l I xShontennk39 wnsogda39iT 39 Long term W 1 L 4 l f U l i QUQ g N i Wernike39s ar Genetic components A4 3 H 5 f OW A c v quot x I Ex eriences a l Locateand pL min 2L 4 R recall KEY 63 8 Km Stimulus Memory 1 Perceptions V K lntegrating center 0mm 3 i Response Figure 922 Mummy processing mm39mb Ctrugh W 5quot Wi v v ncjii gh Cl k af 739 as N0 Kern SPCCI lax 11c ltle m sf 4 Va M MN Same om ml l noquot 59 4 3mm WU We Stem 6r 4 if emaner PMA Q 3th mm m 3U Koo3 7m cm mosrx llSoul quot9 wimnlla g wr m JVW lgmcu a 0W 1 3rm metPvt m Em o Most Complex Pathways Language and Pathologles of the Brain Personality W mum came fw 81 09 Cuile b Speaking 4 heard 1mm Mo io cortex 3 Speaking 3 39wiier woid Liaioroonex WHmukeS W I O Vx 2quot r quot 1 I 1 gt V I quot H I V quotm 39 l a sum 1J amp i View 913 Ccfcbml mini ol39wokcuandvisual NEW i quotmat u A 3di 1 p 2amrxi mmn1 r 3 mime mm m war A l L 39 141ml MM is WW Wmf39cws he Wf ilC U MON J I g39mcox g Ma gsroeog Ma mom Lo gfg Summary m O br Jodi CNS divisions development anatomy amp overview of functions 4 Span Brain protection amp exchange meninges cerebrospinal fluid blood brain barrier 7 9 5 CM 3 EV Brain divisions and association areas Regulation and regional coordination neuromodulators motion motivation behavior learning memory amp language gig 05 vision Elmermm S39vblcm lmsmi o gty 9
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