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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitley Lubeck on Saturday April 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY1001 at University of Minnesota taught by Briggs in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 04/04/15
LECTURE NOTES March 27 2015 PERSONALITY Activity write down 8 words that describe you 0 Examples caring loving thoughtful driven meticulous athletic dedicated Personality The distinctive and characteristic patterns of thought emotion and behavior that uniquely define an individual Distinctiveness people react differently to the SAME situation Consistency stability in a person s behavior over time and in different situations 0 states are temporary traits are enduring 0 state anxiety taking at test feel anxious o trait anxiety anxious all time test driving car etc doesn t matter Attributing Personality Traits o Situation constrains your behavior 0 PersonSituation Deba is behavior controlled by personality or by situations 0 it s the Situation Mischel 40 yrs research 0 stability across situations and lifespan is it due to stable inside person or to similarity of situations across time I Interactionism it is BOTH Conceptualizations of Personality o Nomothetic 0 compared with others 0 Everyone has certain traits to some degree I limited subset of traits o Traits only differ in amountstrength o are descriptors similar to others from activity in beginning of lecture o Idiographic unique source of traits that many others may not have cannot compare across people focus on each individual are descriptors different from others from activity in beginning of lecture idiographic organization of traits true for nomothetic traits as well to some extent topdown structure I cardinal extremely pervasive in a person s life I central dispositions a few traits that stand out in a person I Secondary Disposition less salient characteristics habits seen only in certain situations OOOO Personality Assessment 0 use of large personality inventories o Inventories contain scales that measure specific traits or individual differences sociability aggression shyness dominance agreeableness o Selfreport inventories contain direct facevalid measures look at question and say this is measuring ex shyness o proiective tests contain indirect measures 0 tap deep less conscious aspects of personality 0 thematic apperception test pic of two people your perception on who they are why what event etc March 30 2015 Rorschach 0 let unconscious motivation drive our behavior create something where no answer is wrong or right show pictures tell stories about what you see tests typically aren t reliable should not be used on its own to determine personality How many Traits Lexical Hypothesis all meaningful individual differences are encoded in language I what can data answer for this 0 six questions how all minutes spent reading newspaper high can you reach listen to NPR weight watch headline news 0 unique concepts measured by these questions I Body size I attention paid to media 0 Factor Analysis a statistical technique used to determine how many concepts ie traits are measured by a set of questions o the big 5 5 factors emerge in factor analysis of personality attributes from dictionaries 0 describe personality at the broadest highest level 0 organized hierarchically big 5 at the top 0 The BIG FIVE the OCEAN of individual traits o Extraversion sociable talkative assertive friendly VERSUS quiet passive reserved I Facets enthusiasm and assertiveness I Primary Correlates behaviors associated with positive emotionality and seeking new fun and exciting experiences 0 Agreeableness sympathetic kind trusting cooperative VERSUS suspicious difficult untruthing and aggressive I Facets compassion and politeness I Primary Correlates Behaviors associated with temperament and cooperation with others 0 Conscientiousness organized disciplined dependable diligens VERSUS careless negligent unreliable I Facets industriousness and orderliness I Primary Correlates behaviors associated with achievement restraint selfcontrol and longer lifespans o Neuroticism anxious moody tense vulnerable VERSUS relaxed poised emotionally steady I Facets withdrawal and volatility I Primary Correlates behaviors associated with negative emotionality and overreaction to stress 0 Openness to Experience imaginative curious creative unconventional VERSUS unimaginative uninterested in aesthetics inflexible I Facets intellect and openness I Primary correlates behavior associated with socialpolitical attitudes and reactions to novel events and experiences 0 Big 5 are BASIC 0 They are real stable over time and observers agree when rating the same person Pervasive found consistently in studies Universal consistent across different demographic groups and cultures heritable due at least partially to differences in our genotypes APRIL 1 2015 Attachment Theory 0 Humans have a strong need to form and maintain stable relationships 0 The same feelings that keep parents emotionally attached to their children may also keep romantic partners bonded 3 Stages of Separation Distress o Protest gt persistent attempts to reestablish contact 0 Despair gt Prolonged inactivityhelplessness o Detachment gt Withdrawal fromcoolness toward parentlover Primary Functions 0 Proximity maintenance physically close 0 Safe Haven place where can go to calm down regulate emotions and think of what you need to do next 0 Secure base someone who will be there for you no matter what comfort provided by attachment figures allows individuals to venture confidently and explore the environment Harlow Experiment on Monkeys 0 Food is primary reward for animals primary reinforcer mother was not a biological factorjust simply provided the reward In children Structure 3 attachment patterns in children 1 secure 2 avoidant 3 anxious The Strme Situation Developed by Ainsworth in Uganda and Baltimore studies 0 patterns are ADAPTIVE responses to the care children have received 1 Contingentresponsive care becoming secure when upset allow the children to have time to solve problem but if can t after time then jump in to help 2 Rejecting Care becoming avoidant just going to ignore them they can figure it out 3 lnconsistentunpredictable care become anxious 3 types of internal working models 1 I can depend on others Secure 2 I might be able to depend on others anxious 3 I cannot depend on others avoidant Attachment Working Models how they differ from personality 0 are activated when 0 ill fatigued stressed pained 0 environment is threatening fear relationship loss challenging situations 0 Core attachment concerns become salient 0 Working models promote emotion regulation by helping people reduce and manage felt distress as best they can 0 Hierarchically organized me people world parents romantic partners close friends Adult Romantic Attachment Styles Simpson Rholes and Nelligan 0 induced fear in women and then had them wait with their nonstressed male dating partners for 5 minutes 0 Results 0 secure women actively sought support and secure men gave it if the female was upset o Avoidance women did not seek support and avoidant ment did not give it if the female was upset Secure people have wellintegrated view of themselves and others avoidant people have poorly integrated disconnected views anxious people have conflicted chaotic views Anxious people use dysfunctional conflict resolution tactics spiteful anger but only when trying to resolve major relationship problems April 3 2015 Levels of Analysis Evolution o It usually but not always occurs over thousands of generations 0 is driven by environmental pressures 0 occurs within populations not individuals 0 happens because of difference in gene replication Natural Selection 0 Charles DanVin 0 Genes that improve survival and reproductive success get passed on in larger numbers to the next generation Galapagos lsland Wallace had same idea so DanNin went to get his theory published pressure Evolution has designed the body and the brain to maximize the number genes left in future generations Rapid Evolution Selective Breeding 0 breed by environment 0 our current environment vs our ancestors environment 0 evolved from savannah had to build own shelter find our own food worry about conflict with group and out of group 0 Evolutionary Adaptation Our modern skulls are housed in a stoneaged mind 0 Our brain is specialized to 0 learn language fear snakesspidersheights detect healthyunhealthy others identify cheaters in groups Sexual Selection 0 intersexual selection competing with members of your own sex 0 intrasexual selection Mating and Parental Investment 0 The sex that invests more in offspring is a resource for which the less investing sex competes 0 Sexual dimorphism average size difference between males and females in a species is LESS when both sexes invest in offspring more equallyit is REVERSED when males invest more than females Extreme Mating Success Genghis Khan ruler of China 13th century hundreds of wives and mistresses today 8 of men living in the region of former Mongol empire carry ychromosomes nearly identical to Khan 0 That translates to 05percent of being related to him Parental Investment in Humans 0 compared to other species human babies are born prematurely not walking 0 in the EEA the survival of human children depended on investment from BOTH parents 0 However paternal investment varies Females more picky about mates 0 females initially invest more in offspring 0 females can produce fewer offspring across the lifespan than males What makes mates desirable 0 males evolved to detect females who 0 can have viable children 0 are not likely to mate other men 0 Females evolved to detect males who 0 will pass desirable traits onto their offspring 0 will invest resources in them and offspring 0 Problem can t get what you want both traits mates are few in number that have both traits 0 Must made TRADEOFF between the provider attributes best interest to marry good provider but remain open to men with good genes 0 this is why there is so much variation in women s sociosexual attitudes and behavior
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