HIST 347 Week 1 Lecture Notes - Imperial Russia and Revolution
HIST 347 Week 1 Lecture Notes - Imperial Russia and Revolution Hist 347
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johanna Murphy on Saturday April 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 347 at University of Oregon taught by Julie Hessler in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see USSR/Russia in History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/04/15
Hist 347 History of USSR lussia Week 1 Lecture Notes Revolutionary Russia Imperial Russia and WWI 0 Russian Revolution 1917 happened in the middle of WWI creating the first Communist country 0 Came at time of upheaval in many countries 0 British and French Empires were disintegrating Revolution 0 Was both social and political went farther than any other revolution 0 Went into WWI as ally with Britain and France but was weaker than other allies 0 Russia had been undergoing change for 60 years previously Peasant Class 0 At beginning of the war 80 of population was peasants 0 Used to be very politically isolated 0 Had their own courts 0 Serfdom lasted into 19th century peasants were tied to the land and could be bought and sold with it 0 Peasants were required to supply roadwork and heavy labor for the state 0 Even after the abolition of serfdom traditionalism remained o 1861 peasants were emancipated from serfdom and got to keep some of the land they had traditionally farmed o The state paid compensation to the landowners and the peasants were responsible for repaying the debt over the next 49 years 0 Way of keeping peasants still connected to their villages o Peasants were dissatis ed with how little land they d gotten and resented the landowners that had gotten to keep most of it 0 Many young men still moved to cities as seasonal laborers 0 Early 20th century brought industrial change 0 Large numbers of peasants began working in factories in cities though maintained family ties in the country 0 Peasants became more incorporated into wider economy 0 Began buying things like hats clothing tea etc o Brought urban goods and ideas back with them from the cities Diversity 0 Imperial Russia covered about 16 of land surface 0 Continued to expand through the late 19th century 0 Incorporated huge diversity of people 0 Ethnic Russians only made up 40 of population in the empire 0 Many didn t speak Russian 0 Culturally and religiously diverse 0 Some weren t even in same language family 0 Included Jews Muslims Orthodox Christians Monarchy 0 At start of the 20th century Russia had a hereditary monarchy more absolute than most other European Parliaments 0 Public was completely excluded from politics 1905 Revolution o Tsar Nicholas lost war to Japan 1905 0 General worker strikes began in Russia s cities eventually spread to the villages 0 Peasants began looting and burning feudal estates 0 They wanted all outside forces including the state out of their lives 0 Forced Nicholas to agree to some concessions 0 Reduced censorship of the press 0 Legalized strikes and political parties 0 Established the Duma an elected assembly Duma had no real power because the government was ultimately unwilling to share power 0 Slowly reduced the Duma s power 0 Duma had no power over spending Significant because it helped politicize the Russian public After the revolution there was a big recession and decline in economic activity as well as decline of interest in worker s movements 19 17 Revolution proletariat industrial working class Rapid industrialization led to overcrowding especially in Moscow and St Petersburg 0 Workers might live in barracks or could only afford to rent one room Political parties raised agitation among the workers Many peasant workers were illiterate so political parties had reading classes that also taught them about socialism WWI made tensions worse World War I When contemplating war Russia thought they could be selfsufficient 0 Had food oil fields 0 Believed they could survive being blockaded Battles in 1915 led to huge slaughter of Russian soldiers Didn t have infrastructure roads or weapons needed to fight 0 Went up against cannons with bayonets Different parts of society reacted to war in different ways 0 Educated upper classes generally supported the war and government 0 Common people were more resistant to the war Royal Family Empress Alexandra was not wellliked by the people C Partly because she was German 0 Also because she relied on her advisor Rasputin who was involved with mysticism and began allowing him to give advice to the court 0 There were rumors that Alexandra was sleeping with him Nicholas decided to take command of the military which made the public see it as Nicholas s War People blamed the royal family for defeats The educated public was angry with the royal family and began organizing their own war efforts to try to address problems for the army such as transportation Large numbers of soldiers began to desert Contradictions During the war Russia began coming together in ways similar to a constitutional monarchy At the same time the war split the country apart driving them to seek alternate forms of authority 19 17 Revolution Continued Hardships of WWI pushed Russia over the edge Elites stopped supporting the war and the government There was little sense of national unity The February revolution was triggered by food shortages in Petro grad St Petersburg 0 Very cold weather 0 Inadequate transportation and bad location 0 Railroad lines were being used for military supplies instead of food There was an announcement that no more our supplies would be shipped to Petrograd for 8 weeks People waited in lines overnight for last few pieces of bread Rumors started that the government was trying to starve the citizens 0 Some fancy restaurants still had our to sell dinner rolls making people suspicious Citizens started looting and stealing food stores Led to mass demonstrations that turned political 0 Signs read down with the monarchy Crowds gathered at the Duma wanting bread but also making political demands Socialists agitated the crowds with calls for revolutionary violence End of Monarchy The Duma advised Nicholas to create a new constitutional government but he refused and instead ordered the Duma not to meet This split the Duma into two sides 0 Liberals chose to ignore Tsar Nicholas s command and stay in session anyway Nicholas wanted the crowd s dispersed but gave no orders about how Police were useless in controlling crowds many of them friendly with the demonstrators The revolutionary crowd overtook the railroad stations armory essentially the whole city The army sent emissaries to Nicholas requesting that he abdicate 0 Nicholas agreed but didn t want to hand throne to his son because he was in bad health 0 Instead he tried to give it to his brother Duke Michael but he refused Russia was left without a ruler and the monarchy effectively ended Nicholas was placed under house arrest in the summer palace New Institutions Duma legislators appointed themselves a Provisional Government headed by Prince Georgii Lvov 0 Mostly liberals a few moderate socialists o Meant to rule until a Constituent Assembly could be elected who would then draft Russia s new constitution Repression was strongly reduced but tensions and economic strains remained 0 Political tensions rose due to a lack of legitimized government 0 People were unsure about the Provisional Government because they were not elected 0 Their authority came from informal agreements with other groups in Russia like the army bureaucracy etc o The Provisional Government delayed elections until November Dual Power 0 Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies set itself up as a rival national government 0 Small selfappointed governments were springing up across Russia 0 Independence movements spread across territories Kazakhstan Georgia etc 0 Petrograd Soviet represented the popular more radical revolution 0 Elections to the Soviets were meant to happen every 36 weeks 0 To keep in touch with popular opinion 0 Order 1 decreed that every army unit should elect a committee to run the unit 0 Committee should be obeyed over officers in every situation except active combat 0 Created chaos in the military 0 Some units voted out all officers