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Week 12

by: Notetaker

Week 12 HIST 2340W

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US Diplomatic History
Professor Brasinzky

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US Diplomatic History
Professor Brasinzky
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Notetaker on Saturday April 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2340W at George Washington University taught by Professor Brasinzky in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see US Diplomatic History in History at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/04/15
Week 12 JFK and Modernization Criticized Eisenhower in his affairs in the Americans and Asia 0 He wanted to engage these countries more in the world issues 0 Theory of modernization to make the third worldquot more equal Talcott Parsons 0 Modern pattern variables I Belief in achievement and establishment of specific roles role specificity 0 Traditional pattern variables I Characterized by an emphasis in the collective rather than individual and the idea of passivity humans do not have capabilities to solve the problems in the world themselves I Lack of goal specificity Marion Levy 0 Took Parson s ideas and applied them to the study of modern China As China had greater and greater content with the west called this process modernization o Levy was proved wrong with the triumph of Communism China 0 Idea of modernization became popular in academics Walt Whitman Rostow 0 Economics professor in MIT o Relate the principal of modernization and macro economics to the development world 0 Stages of economic growth noncommunist manifesto I How can traditional states become modern ones Traditional society 0 Characterized by static low productivity in which science and technology were inexistence Preconditions for take off 0 Economic progress is possible enterprises emerge scope of progress rise The take off 0 Traditional barriers to economic progress were eliminated and modern activity dominated the society Drive to maturity o Takes hold after take off societies move beyond original industries and economy as a whole start to mature Stage of high mass consumption 0 Income per capita rises o Rostow is worried about Communism because of its equal economic system principal and he fears they will take advantage of rising independent countries and make them communists 0 USA needs to fill the power vacuum before USSR doquot through taking a direct role in the development process by giving economic aid 0 USA should help lead Latin American countries to development through their process of independence offer guidance and direction to the rest of the world furnish new technologies and to lead them through the stages of modernization Among those who started listening to Rostow s advice was Kennedy Kennedy and Modernization Idea that USA had to supply the intellectual advancement o Followed Rostow s ideas Increase economic assistance in the huts and villages around the worldquot9 USAID Make massive investments foreign aid act passed very soon after Kennedy s was elected Given control over American lending and development programs Sets up investments in Latin America with the purpose of modernization USIA and Cultural diplomacy The Peace corps 1964 sent 7 thousand volunteers around the world Community development projects they would go into villages and try to alter the conditions that they lived in there then they would mobilize the community to take on projects to improve their life conditions in general They shared the common goal to make people in the 3rd world believe that it was possible to change their fate through modernization and capitalistic approachquot Modernization was the key to solve the problems of the 3rd world s infrastructures and etc The Alliance for Progress 0 Nicaraguan Case turned out to have a different outcome than the modernization concept Broader economic liberation programs More broadly the implementation of liberal economic reforms these were only part of a larger effort in progress for Nicaragua Alliance for progress authorized a lot of loans to get started in capitalistic economic Between 196019709 country s annual growth increased very rapidly but the problem was that this economic growth never discouraged revolution 0 Problems Autocratic governments Greater discontent among peasantry The USA ended up continuously supporting autocratic government I Population growth It was hard to provide education and food for a constant growing population Failed to control population growth and its resistance to any form of birth control this weakened the effect of many of the Kennedy s program 53 dropped to 43 of people who could not attend schools but population growth made it increase again I Hickenlooper amendment 0 Charter I 25 GNP growth for all countries who participated I American advisors will be sent to all Latin America countries to lead them to the take of quot stage I Argentina Brasil and Chile had growing middle classes Latin America could be different where the prospect of America could be different Kennedy administration would hope that industrialization would continue to increase middle class and impose efficient systems of taxation I Convinced that economic development and government modernization were a package in order to create the basis in these societies for peaceful transitions Cuba revolutions triumph Kennedy worries that this idea of revolution would spread to the rest of Latin America 0 Kennedy believed that the best way to ensure that other countries did not follow the Cuban rule would be to help the countries of Latin America development If you could promote prosperity and development in LA you would ensure capitalism in the region and prevent a possible communist revolution 0 Latin America task force called the alliance for progress and Kennedy announces this program in March 13th 1961 0 Kennedy believes in good neighbor policy FDR uses his idea during WWII if you turn the western hemisphere into a single united liberal capitalist block you enable the western hemisphere and the world to become all capitalists Many of the ideas of modernization theory get turned on their heads because it actually worked to accelerate revolutions in less privileged countries But it did not destroy the Kennedy administration faith in the project There is nothing wrong with this idea of development or modernization He continued to try to solve a wide variety of the problems faced by the USA especially in Vietnam south east asia Thursday s lecture Ho Chi Mihn I Vietnamese nationalistic o Wilson s self determination call inspired many areas in the world French Objectives 0 Create a French Union in Southeast Asia that would include Cambodia Lao and Vietnam 0 Limited autonomy for French colonies but not real independence 0 All three countries would remain economically and politically dependent on France Towards American Intervention 0 American Decision to support France and Bao Dai 0 Fall of Dien Bien Phu 0 Geneva Conference I Set of negotiations conference participated by UK France USSR and China decided that Vietnam would be divided into 2 zones France control the south Vietnam control the north There was going to be one general election 0 Eisenhower s Domino Thesis I Domino Theory Worried that communism was spreading throughout the world like a domino o Communist threatens the international system I Southeast Asia has many raw materials they are vital to the USA and the to military Primary sources for industries I Talks about the survival of democratic solutions around the world I If communism spread in south east Asia government will lose control over the whole continent American Assistance to Diem o Ngo Dihn Diem catholic Had a mistrust of Buddhism Supported by the USA government Devotes itself to the forceful overthrow of the French government I CIA helps to eliminate opposition I Money for administrative and police training In order to make a more powerful and give more authority to suppress those who oppose it because of this there was suppose to be elections for the entire country and the communist were going to manipulate them and this leads to further tension after 1956 there is a turmoil amount of revolution Emergence of the Viet MihnViet Cong JFK and Vietnam 0 Modernization Looked for ways besides military means to defeat the guerilla tactics they can be defeated if they manipulated the process of change the way people thought Create a sense of nationalism that will make the people more faithful to the government It is ambitions and different and it really start to create change Transform the society and the way people thought and then communism will fade and turn south Vietnam more loyal to them More of them will feel economic development and improve the people s quality of life 0 RostowTaylor Mission Advisors to identify the most pressing problems that the Vietnamese problems faced Included a proposal for 8 thousand men with just a task force it will be an increase and the beginnings of different kinds of military forces in the Vietnam Improve communications Attract loyalty of Vietnam Acquaint the people with actions Counteracts among people and military degenerating the de Ah regime Foster a spirit of national unity Raise south Vietnam prestige among people of other countries 0 Strategic hamlets They encouraged self help programs teach the villagers to build bridges and schools they hoped that even though they were restricting their freedom they believed that they could bring about changes in their lifestyle that will make them more loyal to their government Focus propaganda efforts who were critical as well Why did they failed Peasants who were being uprooted from the land resisted the demands of the program Problem of corruption of the government against the investors Another problem was that they sought and often succeed to create special units to implement the strategic hamlets and in uencing the lives of the people who lived there Demise of American nation building in Vietnam that you could build an anticommunist state centered around Gem government They wanted to concentrate it in economic nation building Toward War 0 Tonkin Gulf Resolution I Through this resolution Johnson was waging a war that involved thousands of troops to support a con ict that the people was not sure they fully supported I First time questions were raised about America s international involvement 0 The China Factor I The concern that Communist China was spreading in the Asia region and would soon take over 0 Americanization I No military missions in the area struggle for freedom has the purpose of helping these countries to repel repression and I Vietnam is not just relevant to Vietnam it is also relevant to the USA and it is part of a much larger con ict to persuade the public and the congress that this war had to be fought 0 Johnson is asking authorization to use armed forces military forces 0 USS Madox I August 5th 19549 I summarized in June 2nd


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