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Week of Feb 21 Notes, Quiz prep for Monday

by: Graham Notetaker

Week of Feb 21 Notes, Quiz prep for Monday Bio131

Marketplace > Elon University > Biology > Bio131 > Week of Feb 21 Notes Quiz prep for Monday
Graham Notetaker
Elon University
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Weekly notes, important terms are highlighted in yellow!
David Vandermast
Class Notes
Bio, Biodiversity, Science
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Graham Notetaker on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio131 at Elon University taught by David Vandermast in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Elon University.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
Week of Feb 21. Notes, Biodiversity with Dr. Vandermast  Graham Kulig  Protista   “Protists are a diverse group of organisms that includes all eukaryotesexcept​ the land  plants, fungi, and animals”    Some Protists...            ● Paraphyletic group (ancestor, and ​ome of its descendants)  ● Morphological innovations occurred as protists diversified:  ○ Nuclear envelope   ○ Multicellularity, and structures that function in support and  protection  ○ Mitochondrion and chloroplast arose by e​ndosymbiosis  ● DIVERSITY IS KEY  ○ Some reproduce sexually, some don’t  ○ Some are photosynthetic, while others get their food from  organic compounds   ○ Mixotrophs  ■ “can perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic  functions”     INTRODUCTION:    ● There is no trait that is found in protists but no other organisms  ○ No synapomorphies  ○ PAY ATTENTION TO SYNAPOMORPHIES, WE WILL BE  QUIZZED ON THEM  ● All eukaryoticexcept for plants, animals, and fungi  ● The common feature among protists is that they tend to live in  environments where they are surrounded by water (including wet  soils)  ● The earliest eukaryotes were probably single­celled with:  ○ nucleus and endomembrane system,   ○ mitochondria,   ○ cytoskeleton,   ○ no cell wall   ○ These cells probably swam using a  ​flagellum      IMPACT ON HUMANS  ● Irish Famine caused by a protist  ● Causes Diseases  ○ malaria  ○ blindness from AIDS  ○ dysentery     ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE   ● Low species diversity, but VERY abundant   ● Are primary producers  ○ They use photosynthesis to produce chemical energy  ● Fix hal the world’s CO2...whoa!   ● Protists play a key role in​global carbon cycle and act as carbon  sinks  reduce global warming   ○ “Fixation vs. sequestrati” ​ ○ Fixation is the process of converting inorganic matter into  organic carbon  ○ Sequestration is CO2 being taken from atmosphere and stored  as a liquid or solid for a long period of time.  ● Carbon Sink  ○ “long lived carbon reservoir” sedimentary rock or petroleum    ● Phytoplankton​ (photosynthetic plankton)   ○ Phytoplankton and other protists are most of the base of food  chains in aquatic environments  ● Planktonic  ○ Can’t resist movement of water, just float around    PHYLOGENETICS  ● The first eukaryote split was betwe​nikonts and bikonts  Opisthokonta and Amoebozoa form the monophyletic group Unikonta  (one flagellum; kont=flagellum) –   ○ The other five major lineages form the monophyletic group  Bikonta (two flagella)   ● The key to understanding the protist clades is to recognize the  synapomorphies​  that occurred within protist lineages  ○ Features of eukaryotic cells (all protists share these)  ○ Primary endosymbiosis of the mitochondria and chloroplasts  ○ Secondary endosymbiosis of chloroplasts in some protist  lineages   ○ Structures for support and protection are unique to various  protist lineages   ○ Alternation of generations in some lineages    Endosymbiosis:  ● Eukaryotic host supplied the bacterium with protection and carbon  compounds , which the bacterium oxidized   ● The host cell is proposed to be a predator capable only of anaerobic  fermentation   ● Primary endosymbiosis:  ○ Bacteria engulfed, lives inside, leaks carbon and ATP, and  provides for host  ● Secondary endosymbiosis  ○ occurs when an organism engulfs a photosynthetic cell and  retains itchloroplasts  ■ chloroplasts surrounded by ​  membranes now  ● Consistent observations with endosymbiosis theory...   ○ Mitochondria about the same size of an average bacterium and  replicate by fission, as do bacteria  ○ Chloroplasts and mitochondria have their own ribosomes,  double membranes, and own genomes   Structures:  ● Many have cell walls  ● Some have shells, or tests  ● Diatoms​  are surrounded by cell wall  ● Dinoflagellat have cell wall composed of cellulose plates  ● Alveolates have alveoli to stiffen structures     Ingestive feeding  ● Larger protist​ngulfinsmaller protists  ● Some eat bacteria  ● Feeding by engulfing is only possible i​on't have a cell wall  (because you gotta be flexible!)    Absorptive feeding  ● Some are decomposers​  (recyclers)   ● Others are parasites and absorb from host    Reproduction:  ● Sexual reproduction:  ○ Based on ​eiosis​(must bed​ploid to get t​) d ○ MUST BE​  DIPLOID  ○ Produces gametes  ○ Sex cells have n=23 to compliment other half the baby  organism will be getting from other parent    ● Asexual reproduction:  ○ Based on mitosis  ○ When you cut yourself...cells divide to replace lost ones using  mitosis.  ○ It is responsible for all the growth that makes us what we are  ○ Mitosis 2n=4 split leaves two cells with 2n=4, identical to  parent  ○ Think duplicati​ not division  ● Haploid: n=23 (gametes, sperm cells)   ● Diploid: 2n=46 (majority of cells in body)  ● Chromosomes come in pairs, living with 3 or 1 usually means death  ○ 1­22 are called autosomes  ○ 23 are sex chromosomes   ○ Chromatids: DNA that has replicated itself   Meiosis In depth: PMAT!  ● Prophase:   ○ Homologous chromosomes come together to form tetrad  (4 chromatids together, process is called synapsis) During this,  chromatids overlap and swap identical genetic information, and  because this is 3D, they can overlap anywhere. This means the  new chromosomes will not be identical to each other.   ○ You get: one chromatid that is identical to dad paired with one  that is mostly dad, some of mom. Vice versa for other  chromosome.  ● Metaphase:  ○  Entire Chromosomes move to sides of cell anticipating split.   ● Anaphase:   ○ Pulled to poles  ● Telophase/cytokinesis:   ○ Split    meiosis 1: homologs get pulled apart   meiosis 2very much like mito, chromatids get pulled apart. producing  gametes at end( sperm/egg cells)    Alternation of generations:  ● Multicellular protists have one phase of life that is based on a haploid  form and another that is based on a diploid form:  ○ This phenomenon is known asalternation of generations   ● Multicellulahaploi​is called​ametophyte​, produces​ametes by  mitosis    ● Multicellula​iplo​is call​porophyte producesspores​by​eiosis   ○ Spore is a single cell. A spore divides by mitosis to form a  haploid, multicellular gametophyte      ● Isomorphic: When the gametophyte and sporophyte look the same  ● Heteromorphic:  sporophyte is giant, gametophyte is tiny  ○ ***“We have some algae that demonstrate one of these two  things. memorize them, and answer the question on the test  correctly!!” 


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