class notes from 3-23-15 to now
class notes from 3-23-15 to now KIN 362
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie Newman on Sunday April 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Tyler Williams in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Motor Development in Kinesiology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/05/15
Allie Newman KIN 362 Class Notes 32315 SensoryPerceptual Development 0 Almost every motor act can be considered a perceptualmotor skil Human movement is based on information about the environment and one s position or location within the environment 0 In order to act or move in an environment we must rst receive information from the environment 0 Example nding a cricket in the house sound perception turn head towards noise Face the noise to turn your ears toward the sound Sensation vs Perception Sensation is the neural activity triggered by a stimulus activating a sensory receptor 0 It results in sensory nerve impulses traveling the sensory nerve pathways to the brain Perception is a multistage process in the central nervous system 0 It includes selection processing organization and integration of information received from the senses 0 Gives meaning to sensory stimuli An Optical Illusion Identical sensations can yield different perceptions o Often we attach different meaning to the same stimulus Example face Or vase Sensory Systems Sensoryperceptual systems are individual structural constraints 0 Differ across individuals 0 Focus on 0 Visual Senses o Auditory senses o Kinesthetic senses Visual Development 0 Vision plays major role in most skill performance 0 Can determine how clearly one can see objects l acuity Acuity is sharpness of sight Measurement of Visual Acuity Often involves reading block letters where the size of spaces between parts of letter can be manipulated o Expressed on the Snellen scale in which 2020 vision requires no correction Acuity Age Related Changes 0 Infants have functionaly useful vision 0 In rst month 5 of adult level 20400 0 Infant can differentiate facial features at 20 inches 0 By 6 months of age vision is adequate for locomotion through the environment Acuity is approximately 2030 by age 5 years and 2020 by age 10 Visual Development 0 An axial length that is too short or too long results in farsightedness or nearsightedness respectively 0 Hyperopia farsightedness l near by objects are blurred o Myopia nearsightedness far away objects are blurred In imperfect curvature of the cornea also causes blurred vision a condition known as astigmatism Visual Changes with Aging Declines in vision have implications for skill performance as well as tasks of everyday living 0 Presbyopia affects the ability to focus on nearby images clearly Becomes clinically signi cant around age 40 It can be corrected with lenses 0 The resting diameter of the pupialso decreases with aging so older adults need more light in dim environments For a 60yearold retinal illuminance is reduced to 13 that in a young adult Visual Disturbances Other visual disturbances prevalent in older adults 0 Cataracts o Glaucoma o Agerelated macuopathy A disease that affects the central area of the retina that provides detailed vusnon Symptoms of Visual Problems at Any Age 0 Lack of eyehand coordination Squinting Under or Overreaching for objects 0 Unusual head movements to align one s gaze with a particular object Vision and Skill Performance 0 Vision provides much of the perceptual information people need to perform skills successfully so 0 Activity leaders should make sure activity areas are well lit but without glare 0 Activity leaders should encourage participants to wear corrective gear Visual Perception Because people depend heavily on visual perception look at notes onine Perception of Space 0 One of the fundamental perceptions is that of threedimensional space 0 Almost all movements depend on this perception To perceive space in 3D 0 Perception of depth and distance is needed 0 Information can come from o Retinal disparity Difference in images received by the two eyes 0 Motion paralax Change in optical location for objects at different distances Perception of Objects Object attributes are size shape and motion Perception is based on information about edges Aspects of Objects Perception Figure and ground perception o Objects of interest seen as distinct from the background 0 Example picking out a green ball in a patch of grass 0 Whole and part perception 0 Parts of a picture or object discriminated from the whole yet can be integrated 0 Parts and whole perceived simultaneously 0 Example seeing half of a bike tire and child heads through a row of cars 0 Shape and orientation perception 0 Object recognized even if its orientation changes 0 Example rotating an object or turning it upside down Development of Shape and Orientation Perception Newborns are sensitive to object shape 0 Shape constancy o Explored through habituation method Newborns perceive faces 0 Face perception 0 Children re ne their ability to deal with subtle changes in object orientation 0 Spatial recognition Perception of Motion 0 Some neurological mechanisms are dedicated to detecting motion 0 Infants perceive motion 0 But lack adult sensitivity to motion Perception of direction and velocity of motion improves during infancy Allie Newman KIN 362 Class Notes 32515 SensoryPerceptual Development Kinesthesis arises from the proprioceptors o Gives us quotbody sensequot 0 Two types of proprioceptors o Somatosensors Located in the muscles at muscletendon junctions in joint capsules and ligaments and under the skin 0 Vestibular Abbaratus Located in the inner ear related to balance Kinesthetic Development 0 Important to skill performance because it yields information about The relative position of the body parts to each other 0 The position of the body in space 0 The body s movements 0 The nature of objects the body comes in contact with O Tactile Localization Newborns can feel touches o Perception of touch location tactile localization improves in early childhood 0 Ability to know the exact spot on the body has been touched without the use of sight 0 Thresholds for discriminating between one touch and two nearby touches improve in cthhood Body Awareness 0 Identifying body parts 0 Children improve in labeling body parts 0 Knowing the body s spatial dimensions 0 Children master up and down rst then front and back and nally side to side 0 Knowing the sides of the body are distinct lateraity 0 Children show adultlike responses by age 10 years old 0 Labeling left and right improves in late childhood 0 Preferring one eye ear hand or foot over the other lateral dominance 0 Infants show preferences 0 Handedness is established around age 4 years old 0 No evidence that pure dominance is necessary Spatial Orientation and Direction Involves perception of the body s location and orientation in space a Directionaity improves in late childhood 0 Often linked to laterality awareness of the body s two distinct sides 0 By age 8 children typically can use body references to indicate direction Example the object is on my left side Transposing right and left improves in adolescence 0 Example looking in mirror and knowing right from left body awarenessunderstanding Auditory Development Sensation o Auditory information although not as important as vision or kinesthesis valuable for accurate movement performance 0 Three structures are involved in hearing 0 Cochlea of the inner ear Develops rst close to adult form by 3rd prenatal month 0 Middle ear 0 External ear Auditory Development in Infancy 0 Infants absolute threshold for sound is higher than for an adult ie do NOT hear as well but allows detection of a normal speaking voice 0 A newborn can detect only an average speaking voice when an adult can detect a whisper o Newborns do not discriminate changes in intensity of sounds differential threshold or in sound frequencies as well as adults can 0 Absolute Thresholdl the minimal detectable sound a hearer can sense at least half of the time a signal is sounded 0 Differential Thresholdl the closest two sounds can be yet still allow the hearer to distinguish them at least 75 of the time Auditory Changes with Aging 0 Hearing loss presbycusis is more frequent is older adults 0 Some loss might have a physiological source 0 Some loss might result from lifelong exposure to environmental noise 0 Absolute and differential thresholds generally increase 0 Hearing amid a noisy background is more dif cult Auditory Perception Auditory perception gives us much information about the environment in which we move speci cally the perception of 0 Location 0 Differences in similar sounds 0 Patterns 0 Auditory gure and ground Perception of Sound Location 0 We locate a sound by determining its direction and distance from us 0 Newborns turn in the direction of sound Little is known about infants perception of the distance of sounds o By age 3 children can locate even distant sounds 0 Older adults with presbycusis have difficulty locating sounds Perception of Sound Patterns 0 Three properties give rise to auditory patterns 0 Time 0 Intensity loudness or softness o Frequencyhigh or low pitch lntermodal Perception Events are perceived through various modalities Two perspectives exist 0 Infants must learn how unique sensations from different senses are related to one another 0 Infants must learn about the world from information coming through various systems AuditoryVisual lntermodal Perception Coordination between heard and seen properties 0 Newborns turn toward a sound 0 A task is easier for children if the visual pattern is presented rst VisualKinesthetic lntermodal Perception Coordination between seen and felt objects 0 Infants seem to relate objects they can see with objects they have mouthed 0 Recognition across modalities is shown in the rst year but matching comes later 0 Abilities improve in childhood Visual rst presentation is easier AuditoryKinesthetic lntermodal Perception Coordination between heard and felt properties 0 Perception improves in childhood Knowledge of the names of objects is a consideration Considering this limitation we can conclude that auditorykinesthetic integration improves in childhood 0 More research is needed Allie Newman KIN 362 Class Notes 33015 Perception and Action in Development Role of Action in Perception o Developmentalists suspect movement is important to perceptual development 0 Movement is necessary to link perception and movement 0 Role of motor activity in development of perception is difficult to study 0 Ideal experiment would be to deprive individuals of movement and compare them with individuals not deprived 0 Animal studies 0 Naturallyoccurring movement experiences observational studies Historical Views Perceptualmotor theories of the 19605 0 Theories identify perception as the precursor of both movement and cognition Researchers speculated that learning disabilities could be remediated through perceptualmotor programs Early evaluations were awed Confounding variables not controlled Contemporary Views Perceptualmotor activities are important 0 They give children experience performing skills based on perceptual information 0 They reinforce concepts such as shapes and directions 0 Motor and cognitive development are intertwined 0 Some educators promote quotactive learningquot Movement activates the brain and facilitates learning As opposed to quotpassive learningquot where children sit quietly watching and listening to a teacher 0 Research indicates signi cant positive relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning Increase in metabolic products in the brain that can build new neurons Important for learning and memory Ecological views 0 Close link between perception and action Perceptions of the environment is ahead of purpose movement Movement skills are acquired with guidance from perceptual information New action make new information perceptions available 0 More research needs to be performed on these perceptionaction loops SelfProduced Locomotion 0 Animal studies and studies with infants tend to support the notion that movement is necessary for normal perceptual development 0 Researchers found that selfproduced locomotion Is related to development of behavior depending on visual perception Facilitates development of depth perception Facilitates development of spatial perception 0 When researchers provided young animals with extra perceptual motor stimulation they found evidence of More brain growth cognitive More efficient nervous system functioning Perception of Affordances Ecological view it is the affordance that is perceived o Affordances involve actions or behaviors the environment permits an individual to perform 0 They are perceived directly without cognitive analysis of object characteristics 0 Example stairs afford climbing 0 Participants related stair height to leg length 0 Perception of affordances change as action capabilities change even though object remains the same 0 Interaction with environment is valuable Affordances Incorporate Body Scale 0 Individuals must be sensitive to their body scale 0 Body scale is an individual s size relative to the environment 0 Body scales change over the life span 0 Scaling of sport equipment and environments allows individuals of various sizes to perform similar movements Tool Use in First Year 0 Infants use trial and error exploration 0 Infants relate objects to other objects and surfaces Affordances involve the relationships between objects Selfgenerated opportunity for perceptual learning exists tool use facilitates perceptual development Movement Facilitates Perceptual Development Deprivation can put individuals at risk of de cient perceptual development 0 Movement experience might in uence the survival of synaptic connections in early development 0 Has been hypothesized that excess number of synapses initially form around neurons 0 Connections activated by sensory and motor experience survive 0 Connections that are not used are lost Posture and Balance PerceptionAction Ecosystem Posture and balance are maintained through 0 Visual senses o Auditory senses o Kinesthetic senses Proprioceptive and vestibular receptors Posture and balance are maintained in various situations o Stationary static and moving dynamic 0 Of various body parts and on various surfaces Balance in Childhood There is improvement throughout childhood and adolescence 0 Between 710 years of age children show adultlike postural responses 0 There is a trend to rely more on kinesthetic information and less on visual information for balance Assaiante Model Assaiante Model identi es four time periods to explain the development of balance in locomotion over the lifespan 0 Birth to standing cephalocaudal direction of muscle control Using upper limbs before lower limbs 0 Standing to age 6years coordination of upper and lower body Age 7years to adolescence re nement of head stabilization o Adulthood re ned control of degrees of freedom in the neck 0 Balance Changes with Aging Younger Adults 0 Adults on a movable platform use ankle muscles to regain balance after small slow perturbations o Perturbations I deviations from a normal path of movement 0 Adults use a hip strategy to regain balance after larger faster perturbations Balance Changes with Aging Older Adults 0 Older adults take longer to initiate a response to perturbation Older adults sometimes use the opposite pattern of younger adults 0 Example upper leg muscles respond rst instead of lower leg muscles The opposite of the pattern in young adults System Changes That Contribute to Balance Dif culty in Older Adults 0 Changes in the sensory receptors 0 Vision changes 0 Changes in vestibular receptors and nerves 0 Loss of strength 0 Arthritic conditions in the joints Slower nerve conduction speed Balance Training for Older Adults 0 Falls are leading cause of accidental death for people over 75 years old 0 Fractures and breaks combined with osteoporosis lead to complications 0 Fear of falling can lead to lifestyle changes inactivity 0 Balance improves with practice in responding to perturbations Exercise programs involving strength and balance reduce falls Allie Newman KIN 362 Class Notes 4115 Social Cultural and Psychological Constraints Sociocultural Constraint o A sociocultural constraint is a type of environmental constraint that in uences the types of physical activity in which people get involved 0 An atmosphere that affects the motor behaviors of an individual 0 Atmosphere includes Social attitudes values mores ideals stereotypes Culturally speci c concepts about movement behaviors Social or Sociological Constraints Attitudes values and social norms of groups in uence the behaviors of individuals within the group 0 Pervasive ideas of a particular social group Example Sumo wrestling Constraints create an atmosphere that o Encourages socially acceptable movement activities 0 Discourages others that are not socially acceptable An Example of Sociocultural Constraints Gender Typing Gender Typing is a type of sociocultural constraint 0 Genderl socially determined male or female characteristics A sociocultural constraint and environmental constraint 0 Sexlj biological characteristics An individual constraint Gender Typing 0 Signi cant others and other socializing agents often encourage children to participate in quotgenderappropriate activities 0 Boysljl encouraged to participate in masculine sports Such as football and wrestling 0 Girls encouraged to participate in feminine sports Such as gymnastics cheerleading and gure skating Persuasive societal attitudes of genderappropriate activities can encourage and restrict options for physical activities for both boys and girls 0 Examples Girls may not develop motor skills to their full potential Boys may be forced to develop a sport they dislike instead of one they like 0 In the United States these attitudes are slowly changing however they still exist Socialization Process 0 The socialization process is the process by which one learns a social role within groups with certain values morals and rules 0 People and situations in uence an individual s choice of activities 0 Three major elements of the socialization process Socializind agents In uential or important people that have an impact on us Social situations 0 Places where socialization takes place school home playground etc lndividualconstraints Personal attributes personal likes and dislikesOpinions Signi cant Others In uential people who are considered socializing agents 0 Include Parents Siblings Peers Teachers and Coaches 0 Parents 0 Parents are important during early childhood Parent s early bias towards or away from physical activity has lasting consequences 0 Gender of both child and parent plays a part Fathers tend to reinforce gender typing in boys Samesex parent as the child may be most in uential Siblings o Siblings represent an individual s rst playgroup Important socializing agent Girls sport participation is in uenced by brothers and sisters 0 As an individual leaves childhood the in uence of siblings tends to diminish Peers 0 Peer groups are important afterchildhood Serve to reinforce or counteract the sport socialization process established by family 0 If a peer group prefers passive activities this can lead to sedentary tendencies 0 Peers provide a strong in uence for group activities Team sports Nonsportrelated club 0 Coaches and Teachers 0 Introduce students to new skills and activities 0 Research suggests teachers and coaches act primarily to reinforce existing socialization patterns Teachers and coaches must avoid providing aversive socialization which will discourage participation 0 Teachers embarrass children in front of the class Overemphasize performance criteria 0 Use physical activity as punishment creating negative associations Social Situations Play environments toys and games can act as constraints in several ways 0 Space Without adequate space opportunities for child s gross motor activities can be diminished 0 Location In urban areas typically exposed to activities that require little space like basketball 0 Climate In colder climates exposed to winter sports like hockey and ice skating Why is it Important to Understand Sociocultural Constraints 0 We are often not aware of our sociologically or culturally based assumptions about groups of people 0 It id not comfortable to examine our own personal biases or those of our culture Psychosocial In uences 0 Interaction of individual functional constraints with environmental sociocultural constraints 0 Individual functions constraints can be 0 Physical limitation cognitive impairments o Emotions perceived ability and other personal attributes o Selfesteem a key functional constraint SelfEsteem Personal judgment of hisher own capability signi cance success and worthiness o Essentially how we see ourselves o Selfevaluation of individual capability General ln speci c domains areas such as physical ability appearance and social skills 0 Individuals beliefs that their selfevaluations are correct are more important to self esteem than their actual accuracy 0 Speci c domains 0 Social academic physical and so on Development of SelfEsteem Children under age 10 years of age depend on comparisons with peers and appraisals of peers to determine physical competence Children of all ages develop selfesteem from feedback and appraisals from teachers and coaches Emotions o Emotions associated with participation in sport and physical activity affect selfesteem development 0 Factors that lead to enjoyment in pre and young adolescents o Perceptions of high ability 0 Mastery of a skill 0 Low parental pressure 0 Parent and coach satisfaction Causal Attributions Causal attributions are the reasons people ve for their successes and failures 0 An individual with high selfesteem will have the following causal attributions 0 Internal l individuals are responsible for their own success or failure 0 Stable l the factors in uencing outcomes are consistent from one situation to the next 0 Controllable l the individual is in control of the factors in uencing outcomes 0 An individual with low selfesteem will have the following causal attributions 0 External l successes and failures result from in uences outside the individual 0 Unstable l outcome is a function of uctuating in uence such as luck 0 Uncontrollable l the individual cannot control or in uence the outcome Children39s Attributions Children with high selfesteem give internal stable and controllable reasons for outcomes 0 Children with low selfesteem tend to make inaccurate attributions about outcomes and exhibit the following behaviors 0 An unwillingness to try challenging tasks 0 A lack of effort to do well quotI didn t try hard so that s why I didn t do wellquot 0 Avoidance of participation Adults39 Attributions Adults evaluate themselves by 0 Observing past and present accomplishments and failures 0 Comparing themselves with others 0 Receiving verbal persuasion from others 0 Observing their physiological state or tness level Motivation to Participate 0 There is a relationship between selfesteem and motivation to participate in both children and adults 0 A high level of motivation is essential for beginning or maintaining participation in sports and physical activities Homework 0 Assignment posted on blackboard In a word document come up with 3 multiple choice questions that you may expect to see on the exam 3 question with 4 multiple choice options bold correct answer 0 List 4 potential answers and indicate the correct answer for each 0 Upload to blackboard by end of the day
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