BIO 126 WEEK 1
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Ros on Sunday April 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 126 at Drexel University taught by Dr. Togna & Dr. Smith in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Physiology and Ecology in Biology at Drexel University.
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Date Created: 04/05/15
BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 PHYSIOLOGY POWERPOINT 1 Organization of vertebrate body a Four levels i Cells ii Tissues 1 Groups of cells that are similar in structure and function 2 Embryonic Tissue a Endoderm b Mesoderm c Ectoderm 3 Adult tissue a Epithelial tissue 1 ii iii iv V Vi Vii Covers every surface of the vertebrate body Can form three germ layers Can change into glands Protective barrier Possesses remarkable regenerative powers replacing cells throughout life Attach to underlying connective tissues by fibrous membrane 1 Basal surface secured side 2 Apical surface free side Naming of epithelium 1 Layers a Simple one layer b Stratified several layers c Pseudostratified a Squamous at i Skin ii Permits diffusion b Cuboidal cube like as wide as tall i Kidneys ii Glands exocrine sweat endocrine hormones c Columnar taller than wide i Areas subject to wear and tear ii Intestines b Connective tissue i Connect anchor support BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 ii Adipose bone cartilage loosedense connective iii Forms extracellular matrix fibers ground substance iv Protects and cushions mechanical strength c Muscle tissue i Motors of the vertebrate bodies ii Three Kinds 1 Smooth a Involuntary control b Walls of blood vessels and visceral organs c Single nucleus 2 Skeletal a Striated b Voluntary control c Attached to bone by tendons d Multinucleated e Contracts by myofibrils actin and myosin fibers 3 Cardiac a Striated b Involuntary control c Single nucleus d Intercalated discs d Nerve tissue i Neurons and neuroglia ii Three parts of a neuron 1 Cell body contains nucleus 2 Dendrites highly branched extensions a Conducts electrical impulses toward the cell body 3 Axon single cytoplasmic extension a Conducts impulses away from cell boy b Axon Away iii Neuroglia 1 Don t conduct electrical umpulses 2 Supportsinsulates neurons 3 Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes associate together to form myelin sheaths BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 4 Gaps are involved in acceleration of impulses iii Organs l Combinations of different tissues that form a structural and functional unit 2 Two types of tissues working together 3 Anatomically or functionally linked to form organ systems iv Organ systems 1 Groups of organs that cooperate to perform the major activities of the body 2 ll organ systems a Nervous system i Central nervous system 1 Brain and spinal cord 2 Integration and interpretation of input ii Peripheral Nervous system 1 Nerves and ganglia collections of cell bodies 2 Communication of signal to and from the CNS to the rest of the body 2 Homeostasis a Specialization of body structures has increased as animals evolved b Internal body conditions must be relatively constant c Dynamic constancy of the internal environment i Set point 1 Normal value for controlled variable 2 Set body temperature blood glucose concentrations electrolyte ii Sensor 1 Monitors particular variable iii Integrator l Compares signals from the sensor to set point 2 Center is often a particular region 0 the brain or spinal cord iv Effector l Compensates for deviations between actual value and set point 2 Change the value of the condition in question back toward the set point value 3 Antagonistic effectors a Involved in the control of body temperature 4 Feedback systems a Fundamental feature of homeostasis b Negative feedback BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 i Minimize effector C Positive feedback i Enhance effector 1 Essential for life BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 CHAPTER 42 LEARNING OBJECTIVE NOTES THE ANIMAL BODY AND PRINCIPLES OF REGULATION 421 Organization of the Vertebrate Body 1 List the levels of organization in the vertebrate body a Cells b Tissues i Groups of cells that are similar in structure and function are organized into tissues ii Embryonic level germ layers 1 Endoderm 2 Mesoderm 3 Ectoderm iii Adult level tissues 1 Epithelial tissue 2 Connective tissue 3 Muscle tissue 4 Nerve tissue c Organs i Body structures composed of several different types of tissues that form a structural and functional unit ii Composed of 2 types of tissues d Organ systems i Group of organs that cooperate to perform the major activities of the body ii 11 principle organ systems 2 Identify the tissue types found in vertebrates a Embryonic level germ layer i Endoderm ii Mesoderm iii Ectoderm epidermis b Adult level i Epithelial tissue ii Connective tissue iii Muscle tissue iv Nerve tissue 3 Describe how body cavities are organized a Dorsal body cavity i Forms within the skull and vertebrate l Protects brain and spinal cord b Ventral body cavity i Extends anteriorly from the area bounded by the rib cage and vertebral column posteriorly to the area contained within the ventral body muscles and the pelvic girdle BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 C Peritoneal cavity i Coelom extends from the body wall to envelop and suspend several organs within the ventral body cavity in the abdominopelvic cavity d Pericardial cavity i Thin space within mesodermal layers around the heart e Pleural cavity i Two thin spaces around the lungs 422 Epithelial Tissue 1 Describe the structure and function of an epithelium a Structure i Provides a barrier ii Cells are tightly bound together iii Attach to underlying connective tissues by a fibrous membrane 1 Secured surface BASAL SURFACE a Bottom basal basement 2 Free side apical b Function i Covers every surface of the vertebrate body ii From ectoderm 1 Outer portion of skin iii From endoderm 1 Lines inner surface of digestive tract iv From mesoderm 1 Lines inner surfaces of blood vessels v Some change in the course of embryonic development into glands for secretion vi Regenerative powers 1 Epidermis renews every two weeks 2 Stomach epithelium is replaced every 2 3 days 2 Illustrate the cell types found in an epithelial membrane a Number of layers i Simple 1 Single layer ii Stratified 1 Multiple layers b Classes i Squamous 1 Flat ii Cuboidal 1 As wide as they are tall iii Columnar 1 Taller than wide BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 3 Explain the structure and function of different epithelia a Simple epithelium i One cell thick ii Simple squamous examples lung cells blood capillaries iii Simple cuboidal lines kidney tubules glands specialized for secretion iV Simple columnar lines airways of resp tract GI tract goblet cells secretion of mucus V Glands l Exocrine a Contains ducts in order to secrete substances b Connection between the gland and the epithelial membrane remains as a duct c Excretion of substance 2 Endocrine a Ductless glands b Hormones b Stratified epithelium i Two several cell layers ii Named according to the features of their apical layer BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 EJMFLE thing nilimjaynzajnilh r sgan mdiw ni lh nmn nhwummm mum lEprHIH liming megl imi wmmxmmlgq aim HIGH db milrigpazi mmgmhnmaMimrln minimum Li I WhI imgnEmh il39 lil39lzl mm at MPH m liithtsmill Egan 39f L ml hm MHEHE rainqu will fum39m j if imui39mu im Emma Imiq m am mmrm F m w i Ma hIE rm r 1 E MIME 5521th qilf hla la ET 39 TlF 39E E39F39JTHELEUH marl 39afitirellin rg af39mt h rum F lm u lkgm aw u m quottif l i39 Epiit39lhiihli Edi BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 423 Connective Tissue 1 Describe the structure and function of connective tissue a Structure i Abundant extracellular material MATRIX ii Matrix contains uid proteins and ground substance uid material between cells and fibers b Function i CONNECTive tissue 2 Differentiate among forms of connective tissue a Connective tissue proper i Fibroblasts produce and secrete the extracellular matrix ii Types 1 Loose connective tissue a Could include mast cells and macrophages immune system b Strengthened by a loose scattering of protein fibers collagen elastin reticulin C Types of loose connective tissue i Adipose 1 Fat cells important for nutrient storage 2 Cells cannot divide but increase or decrease in size has weight is gained or lost 3 Found under the skin in bone marrow and around the kidneys 2 Dense connective tissue a Less ground substance b Contains tightly packed collagen fibers C Stronger than loose connective tissue d Types of dense connective tissue i Dense regular connective tissue 1 Collagen fibers line up in parallel a Tendons muscle to bone b Ligaments bone to bone ii Dense irregular connective tissue 1 Various orientations of collagen fibers 2 Produce tough coverings that package organs 3 Covers muscle nerves bones b Special connective tissue i Contain unique cells and matrices to allow them to perform specialized functions BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 ii Types of special connective tissue 1 Cartilage a Ground substance forms from a characteristic type of glycoprotein chondroitin and collagen fibers parallel layers b Firm exible tissue that does not stretch c Makes up tip of the nose outer ear intervertebral disk of backbone larynx d Chondrocytes cells of cartilage i Live within spaces called lacunae within cartilage ground substance ii Receive nutrients from cartilage ground substance 2 Bone a Osteocytes bone cells i Extend cytoplasmic processes toward neighboring osteocytes through tiny canals canaliculi ii Communicate with blood vessels and central canal b Cartilage I bone through calcification 3 Blood a Contains abundant EC material plasma b Erythrocytes red blood cells c Leukocytes white blood cells d Contains platelets thrombocytes fragments of bone marrow cells 3 List the cells that make connective tissue a Adipose tissue i Adipose cells b Cartilage i Chondrocytes c Bone i Osteocytes d Blood i Erythrocytes ii Leukocytes iii Thrombocytes BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 Lime Time W mm Iiimm a nghmmmd EFFml Imijlamim Em sit2mm and mrmsh mf liar wilwliiu Emma mm nges mIMHME Dr lix ll39nit Thine Wm mm infun en u a himg ha emim jn Ef er 39 t ggn g mm im Eighth3 Emmi i ml iahghng m mmjtimm Myriam irame in m m amerum mmmmam minim alf ll39iuzlzimmhasdEmngmfam f f i m 39 f hw m m Emilia Muslimstaining Mm in n ag ma a IiigH marl m mmdiamdiimmt lm 39 I ii Elam irmrlmm m Hm 39 T mEEIWmnH rmh ml quoti i l i a Hiepuma Imam III mmrm harm Elma Miami mm quot J s EH MEWJ BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 424 Muscle Tissue 1 Identify the unique features of muscle cells a Relative abundance and organization of actin and myosin filaments within b Striations in some muscle cells transverse stripes C Voluntary or involuntary 2 Differentiate among the three kinds of muscle cells a Smooth muscle i Not striated ii Involuntary contraction iii Found in most organs iv Also called visceral muscle v Arranged into sheets of long spindle shaped cells containing only one nucleus vi Lines the walls of many blood vessels and walls of the digestive tract vii Nerves regulate the activity b Skeletal muscle i Striated ii Voluntary contractions iii Usually attached to bones by tendons iv Lots of muscle fibers that lie parallel and have multiple nuclei v Contractions depend on motor neurons and myofibrils that contain highly ordered arrays of actin and myosin filaments C Cardiac muscle i Striated ii Involuntary contractions iii Contains small intercalated discs with a single nucleus 1 Actually regions where gap junctions link adjacent cells together iv Some can generate electrical impulses spontaneously BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 53mm t midlia Wit iiif inim 39mseh mh and Mm m Hm i Mm Emmy mamas mm MEI lhrtifianz imithmsm wllli 5mm i l Wh39mmmwm Ful ll lsrl zngitdlmm mm umaw li i EE IEllt Ez l al mm mlils Eai ut i e ham 7 Hi IiiWHITE mums HEW Emmd mam le i l uf39slggmllhzlimmg mama ude I1IEEIE EEIIE BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 425 Nerve Tissue 1 Describe the basic structure of neurons a Cell body i Contains the nucleus b Dendrites i Thin branched ii Receives incoming stimulation iii Conduct electrical impulses to the cell body c Axon i Single extension of cytoplasm that conducts impulses away from the cell body 2 Identify the two divisions of the nervous system a Central nervous system i Brain ii Spinal cord iii Role of integration and interpretation of input b Peripheral nervous system i Communicates signals to and from the CNS to the rest of the body ii Nerves 1 Axons iii Ganglia 1 Collections of neuron cell bodies BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 426 Overview of Vertebrate Organ Systems 1 Identify the different organ systems in vertebrates a Integumentary System Endocrine System Circulatory System Reproductive System Respiratory System Nervous System Muscular System Skeletal System Urinary System Digestive System Immune System 2 Explain the functional organization of these systems a Communication and integration i Detection of external and internal stimuli I coordinate the body s responses ii Nervous System 1 Detects internal sensory feedback and external stimuli such as light sound and touch 2 Info is collected and integrated to come to an appropriate response 3 Sensory systems a Subset of the nervous system b 5 senses organs that detect those iii Endocrine System 1 Issues chemical signals that regulate and fine tune the myriad chemical processes taking place in all ther organ systems b Support and movement i Musculoskeletal system 1 Muscles I movement 2 Skeleton I framework c Regulation and maintenance i Nutrient acquisition waste disposal material distribution and maintenance of the internal environment ii Digestive system 1 Eat absorb nutrients eliminate solid wastes iii Circulatory system 1 Heart and vessels pup and distribute blood carry nutrients and other substances throughout the body iv Respiratory system 1 Acquisition of oxygen and expels carbon dioxide v Urinary system W fHp qormpaosr BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 1 Regulate concentration of their body uids a Osmoregulation d Defense i Integumentary system 1 First line of defense 2 Skin hair nailes ii Immune system 1 Production of antibodies and specialized cells that attack invading organisms e Reproduction and development i Reproductive system 1 Consists of organs where male and female gametes develop 2 Glands and tubes that nurture gametes and allow gametes of complementary sexes to come into contact 3 Females have systems for nurturing the developing embryo and fetus BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 427 Homeostasis 1 Explain homeostasis a Temperature pH concentrations of glucose and oxygen remaining relatively constant for cells to function efficiently and interact properly with one another b Dynamic constancy of the internal environment i Dynamic is used because conditions are never constant but uctuate continuously within narrow limits c Essential for life 2 Illustrate how negative feedback can limit a response a Conditions within the body as well as outside it are detected by specialized sensors cells or receptors Initiated when the conditions deviate too far from normal c Set point d Factors of a negative feedback system i Stimulusl 1 Deviation from set point ii Sensorl l Constantly monitors conditions iii Integrating Center particular region of brain or spinal cord or glandsl l Compares conditions to a set point based on a desired value iv Effectorl 1 Causes changes to compensate for deviation 2 Messages sent to decrease the activity of particular target organs 3 Generally muscles or glands v Responsel 1 Move system towards set point 3 Illustrate how antagonistic effectors can maintain a system at a set point a Most factors in the internal environment are controlled by several effectors that have antagonistic actions i Increasing activity of one effector is accompanied by decreasing activity on an antagonistic effector b Involved in control of body temperature I hypothalamus c Positive feedback mechanism is the opposite of negative feedback mechanism i Accentuates a change further in the same direction ii Effector drives the value of the controlled variable even farther from the set point iii Highly unstable do not help maintain homeostasis iv Examples blood clotting giving birth BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 mum ay t mpamura da a m 5551an i1 mummin EM 15ml has mm m x l39l EmilIE fi E drum we 1 1 HAUL r I 1 EH 1m 353 r g um 2 mmmr inzwr N i a ElfEll Faint rm a I i ma WHEN is Elam Hawaii EHWWTI EIEEHZ E W51 m akin Hima hf l g BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 428 Regulating Body Temperature 1 Explain Q10 and its significance a Measure of chemical sensitivity for enzymes b Ratio between the rates of a reaction at two temperatures that differ by 10 degrees Celsius i Q10 RT10RT ii Q10 value is around 2 iii Every increase of 10 degrees Celsius rate of reaction doubles c Can be applied to overall metabolism i Q10 around 2 and 3 ii Effect of temperature is mainly on the enzymes that make up metabolism 2 Define how organisms can be categorized with respect to temperature regulation a Homeotherms i Regulate their body temperature about a set point ii Warm blooded iii Tended to maintain their body temperature above the ambient temperature b Poikilotherms i Those that allow their body temperature to conform to the environment ii cold blooded iii Can have a more constant temperature than homeotherms c Endotherms i Animals that use metabolism to generate body heat and maintain their temperature above ambient temperature ii Tend to have lower thermal conductivity due to insulating mechanisms d Ectotherm i Animals with a relatively low metabolic rate that do not use metabolism to produce heat ii Tend to have high thermal conductivity and lack insulation 6 Heterotherm i Middle of endotherm and ectotherm 3 Describe mechanisms for temperature homeostasis a Homeothermic ectotherms i Behavior 1 Adjust temperature by adjusting body orientation 2 Placing body in sunlight or shade 3 Maximization of blood ow a Dilation and contraction of blood vessels to regulate the amount of blood available for heat transfer by conduction ii Countercurrent heat exchange BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 l Allows the cooler blood in the veins to be warmed through radiation of heat from the warmer blood in the arteries located close to the veins 2 Arteries carry warmer blood from the center of the body b Homeothermic endotherms i Creates internal metabolic heat for conservation or dissipation ii Control amount of blood ow 1 Dilation of blood vessels increases the amount of blood owing to the surface 2 Constriction of blood vessels decreases amount of blood owing to the surface and decreases thermal heat exchange iii Thermogenesis 1 Use of normal energy metabolism to produce heat 2 Shivering and nonshivering a Nonshivering i Fat metabolism is altered to produce heat instead of ATP b Shivering i Uses muscles to generate heat without producing useful work ii Involves the use of antagonistic muscles to produce little net generation of movement 3 Controlled by hypothalamus in mammals 4 4 Types of heat transfer a Radiation i Transfer of heat by electromagnetic radiation ii Does not require direct contact iii Transferred from hotter bodies to colder bodies iv EX Sun b Conduction i Direct transfer of heat ii Hotter to colder c Convection i Transfer of heat brought about the movement of a gas or liquid ii Could be externally caused or due to density differences related to heating and cooling waterair d Evaporation i Liquid to gas heat of vaporization BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 ECOLOGY POWERPOINT LECTURE 0 Ecology 0 Study of interactions among organisms and their environment I Biotic interactions interactions among living things I Abiotic interactions between organisms and their nonliving environment 0 Environmental science 0 Application of ecology to real world problems 0 Scale of Ecology O Organismal ecology I 2 subdisciplines 0 Physiological ecology 0 Investigates how organisms are physically and chemically adapted to their environment 0 Behavioral ecology 0 How the action or inaction of an individual organism contributes to survival and reproductive success I Physiological ecology 0 Wide variety of physical adaptations 0 Regulation 0 Camou age O Digestion 0 Both long term and short term adjustments 0 Long term I EX wood frog freezing I Dependent on environment 0 Short term I EX Bats awakening I Behavioral ecology 0 Paying costs of 0 Energy 0 EXposer to danger 0 For the benefits of 0 Resource acquisition I Food I Shelterterritory I Reproduction I Water 0 Avoidance of greater danger 0 Physiological optimization BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 0 Communication within the nervous system I homeostasis O Negative and positive feedback systems 0 Population ecology I Focuses on groups of interbreeding individuals aka populations I Goal to understand factors affecting population growth density and size 0 Relative abundance 0 Includes studies of species interactions 0 Predation 0 Competition 0 Commensalism O Parasitism 0 Community ecology I Studies how populations of species interact and form functional communities I Focuses on why some areas are species rich while others are species poor I Studies succession 0 How species composition and community structure change over time particularly after disturbance O Ecosystem ecology I Studies the ow of energy and cycling of chemical elements among organisms within a community and between organisms and the environment I Food chains trophic levels 0 May interconnect and form food webs 0 Ecological methods 0 Hypothesis testing I Observations I Hypothesis formation I Experimentation I Data analysis I Acceptancerejection of hypothesis 0 Observational studies I Collect data on existingdynamic conditions 0 Experimental studies I Manipulate factors to test a hypothesis Observe relationship I Create hypothesis I gather data in situationl create hypothesis I conduct manipulateive experiment I link to field study 0 Earth s impact on distribution BIO 126 PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY WEEK 1 0 Both distribution pattern and abundance are limited by physical features of the environment I Temperature wind availability of waterlight salinity pH 0 Ecosystem consists of two basic interaction parts I Biotic I Abiotic
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