chapter 15 PSYC_3150_10
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Date Created: 04/05/15
Chapter 15 Variations in Sexual Behavior INTRODUCTION gt in uence of society and culture on standards of normalcy and deviance gt De ne quotparaphilia o a persistent and atypical sexual interest in nonhuman objects physically or emotionally painful experiences or nonconsenting or sexually immature individuals 0 these behaviors occur over a period of at least 6 months and cause clinically signi cant distress or impairment in social occupations or other important areas of functioning o to be classi ed as paraphilia the fantasy or behavior must be for the purpose of sexual arousal ex if a man becomes aroused when his girlfriend wears high heels in bed it doesn39t mean he has a paraphilia unless his sexual desire doesn39t depend on the girlfriendonly the shoes for 6 months or more 0 paraphilic behaviors end to be compulsive person would like to stop but feels powerless and controlled by urges gt common characteristics of those who have paraphilia 0 almost all paraphilics are male 0 most paraphilics have more than one paraphilia 0 may have emotional problems impulse control disorders or other compulsive behaviors gt proposed causes of paraphilic behavior 0 combination of biological psychological and sociological causes 0 Develobmental Theories person may develop a paraphilia due to childhood traumas or events that permanently alter his sexual expression Pscyhoanaytic theoryparaphilias are manifestations of unresolved inner con icts caused by traumatic events during cthhood Lovemaps john Mahoney people develop a template of his or her ideal romantic partner and lover basic pattern for our perfect mate is formed during childhood and modi ed by experiences and environment Courtship disorder theory suggests that in some people the nora cycle of courtship becomes shortcircuited because all the paraphilics energy is spent in one stage of courtship o Behavioral Theories childhood experiences in uence our sexual expressions as a result of classical conditioning an otherwise nonsexual object or behavior may take on erotic undertones through its association with sexual pleasure o Biolooical Theories Neural and hormonal abnormalities may exist in some men with paraphilias men with paraphilic sexual interests may show different brain activity during sexual excitement in men without paraphilias sexual arousal is associated with EEG activation in the right parietal lobe vs in paraphilics the left frontal lobe is more active 0 Sociological theories exposure to hundreds of sexualized images each day many paraphilic rituals mirror the gender roles and sexual mores that we absorb from society NONCOERCIVE PARAPHILLIAS gt De ne fetischism partialism transvestic fetishism autogynephilia BDSM and sadomasochism as well as other noncoercive paraphilia o noncoercive paraphilia paraphilias that are practiced by indivdiuals privatey or by Willing adult participants 0 Fetishism a paraphilia in which a person has sexually arousing fantasies and behaviros regarding an inanimate object common fetishistic obiects linoerie stockings shoes or boots silk leather rubber wide variation for some fetish object increases sexual arousal others can39t get sexually aroused without it some only need object fro sexual grati cation during times of stress and others may need it for all sexual satisfaction 0 Partialism when a fetish involves particular body parts such as feet hair or breasts 0 Transvestic Fetishism a paraphilia in which a man becomes sexually aroused by wearing women39s clothing important distinction between transvestites from drag queens and transsexuals transvesites are men usually heterosexual who usually have no desire to be women but who derive sexual pleasure from dresasing as a woman 0 Drag queens men who dress as women to entertain act out or attract other en Transsexuals corss dress because they identify as the other sex not for sexual arousal some may have autogynephilia a paraphilia in which a man is sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a women 0 BDSM bondage and discipline dominance and submission Dominatrix a woman who is paid to act as a dominant partner Usually no intercourse between the dominatrix and her client Many powerful men including CEOs and physicians are clients of dominatrices SampM Sadism and masochism sexual pleasure is associated with physical or psychological pain Masochism derive sexual pleasure from being humiliated beaten tied up or made to suffer in some way Sadism paraphilia in which a manederives sexual pleasure from intentionall y hurting or humiliating others 0ther noncoercive paraphilia Urophilia sexual arousal from contact with urine sploshing sexual enjoyment from having wet and messy substances smeared on one s body and infantilism the desire to dress as and be treated like an infant COERCIVE PARAPHILLIAS gt Coercive vs noncoercive pharaphilia 0 Coercive paraphilia considered more problematic because it involves the unwilling participants of others vs noncoercive are consenting adu s gt exhibitionism telephone scatologia frotte urism voyeurism and peodophillia 0 exhibitionism paraphilia in which a personusually male is sexually aroused by exposing his genitals to an unsuspecting strangerusually female most only show the penis one of the most common paraphilia in the US mooning or streaking is not considered exhibitionism 0 Telephone Scatologiacharacterized by sexual arousal through the use of obscene language to unsuspecting victims on the phone thoughht to be a form of exhibitionism but whereas those with exhibitionist behavior have direct contact with their victims scatoophiiacs prefer more anonymous contact 0 Voyeurism a paraphilia characterized by the urge to observe an unsuspecting person or persons while they are naked or engaged in sexual activities different from scopophilliac who enjoys watching others who have consented to being watched 0 Pedophillia a paraphilia in which an adult is preferentially or sometimes exclusively sexually attracted to prepubescent children to be classi ed as a pedoohile individual needs to have had over a period of at least 6 months incurrent sexually arousing fantasies urges or behavior involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child 0 must be at least 16 years old and be at least 5 years older than the child or children to which he is sexually attracted to a not the same as child sexual offenders gt typical behaviors and characteristics of those with coercive paraphillias TREATMENT OF THE PARAPHILLIAS most people with paraphilia don39t want to be quotcuredquot because their predilections are sometimes their sole source of sexual pleasure while harmless noncoercive paraphilia may cause stress in a relationship coercive paraphilia involve unsuspecting victims and need to learn to modify their behavior because paraphilia often have biological psychological and sociological roots their treatment is similarly multifaceted paraphilia may undergo individual and group therapy social skills training aversion therapy orgasmic reconditioning and pharmaceutical interventions VARIATIONS IN SEXUAL FREQUENCY Asexuality when a person does not experience any sexual attraction to either SEX 0 not celibacy a behavioral choice to not have sex nor is it a temporarily diminished sexual desire such as hypoactive sexual desire Considered more a sexual orientation in that an asexual person has no sexual desire for either men or women some asexuals masturbate but report that it doesn39t feel sexual when they do so Hvbersexualitv an excessive interest in sex to the point where it can cause problems in one39s life 0 often shares many characteristics with 0CD addictive behaviors or impuse control disorders sexual compulsives spend much of their time obsessively thinking about sex pursuing it and then recovering from it pharmaceuticals may help reduce obsessive behaviors or sex drive selfhep groups sexaholics anonymous SA both asexuality and hyper sexuality may have biological or psychological foundations
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