Chapter 7 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bella on Monday April 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at University at Buffalo taught by Larry Hawk in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.
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Date Created: 04/06/15
Chapter 7 MEMORY Amnesia A loss of memory over an entire time span resulting from brain damage caused by accident infection or stroke Anterograde amnesia Amnesia that leaves consolidated memories intact but prevents new learning Automatic processing Processing that allows you to carry out a sequence of steps without having to pay attention to each one or to the relations between the steps Breadth of processing processing that organizes and integrates information into previously stored information often by making associations Central executive the set of processes that operates on information in one or another of two specialized STMs part of working memory Chunk a unit of information such as a digit letter or word Code a type of mental representation an internal representationquot such as in words or images of a stimulus or event Consolidation the process of converting information stored dynamically in LTM into a structural change in the brain Controlled processing Processing that requires paying attention to each step of an action and using working memory WM to coordinate the steps Cues Stimuli that trigger or enhance remembering reminders Decay the fading away of memories with time because the relevant connection between neurons are lost Depth of processing the number and complexity of the operations involved in processing information expressed in a continuum from shallow to deep Elaborate encoding encoding that involves great breadth of processing Encoding the process of organizing and transforming incoming information so that it can be entered into memory either to be stored or to be compared with previously stored information Encoding failure A failure to process toberemembered information well enough to begin consolidation Episodic memories memories of events that are associated with a particular context a time place and circumstance Explicit or declarative memories memories that can be retrieved at will and represented in STM verbal and visual memories are explicit if they can be called to mind as words or images False memories memories of events or situations that did not in fact occur Flashbulb memory An usually vivid and accurate memory of a dramatic event Forgetting curve a graphic representation of the rate at which information is forgotten over time Recent events are recalled better than more distant ones but most forgetting occurs soon after learning Habit a welllearned response that is carried out habitually without conscious thought when the appropriate stimulus is present Hypermnesia memory that improves over time without feedback particularly with repeated attempts to recall Implicit or nondeclarative memories memories that cannot be voluntarily called to mind but nevertheless in uence behavior or thinking Incidental learning learning that occurs without intention Intentional learning learning that occurs as a result of trying to learn Interference the disruption of the ability to remember one piece of information by the presence of other information Longterm memory LTM a memory store that holds a huge amount of information for a long time from hours to years Longterm potentiation LTP A receiving neuron s increased sensitivity to input from a sending neuron resulting from previous activation Memory store a set of neurons that serves to retain information over time Mnemonic devices strategies that improve memory typically by using effective organization and integration Modalityspecific memory stores memory stores that retain input from a single sense such as vision or audition or from a specific processing system such as language Primacy effect increased memory for the first few stimuli in a set Priming the result of having just performed a task that facilitates repeating the same or an associated task Proactive interference interference that occurs when previous knowledge makes it difficult to learn something new Reality monitoring an ongoing awareness of the perceptual and other properties that distinguish real from imagined stimuli Recall the act of intentionally bringing explicit information to awareness which requires transferring the information from LTM to STM Recency effect Increased memory for the last few stimuli in a set Recognition the act of encoding an input and matching it to a stored representation Rehearsal the process of repeating information over and over to retain it in STM Repetition priming priming that makes the same information more easily accessed in the future Repressed memories Real memories that have been pushed out of consciousness because they are emotionally threatening Retrieval the process of accessing information stored in memory Retroactive interference interference that occurs when new learning impairs memory for something learned earlier Retrograde amnesia Amnesia that disrupts previous memories Semantic memories memories of the meanings or words concepts and general facts about the world Sensory memory SM a memory store that holds a large amount of perceptual input from a very brief time typically less than 1 second Serial position effect having superior memory for the items at the beginning and at the end of a list serial positionquot refers to the order of the items in the sequence Shortterm memory STM AKA immediate memory a memory store that holds relatively little information typically 59 items for only a few seconds but perhaps as long as 30 seconds Source amnesia a failure to remember the source of information Statedependent retrieval recall that is better if it occurs in the same psychological state that was present when the information was first encoded Storage the process of retaining information in memory Transfer appropriate processing processing used to retrieve material that is the same type as was used when it was originally studied which improves memory retrieval Working memory WM the system that includes two specialized STMs auditory loop and visuospatial Sketchpad and a central executive that operate on information in them to plan reason or solve a problem
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