first week in april
first week in april GEO 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Reid on Monday April 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at Washington State University taught by Wilkie in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 04/06/15
March 30th 2015 Meander cutoffs and Oxbow lakes Meanders migrate over time the rate depends on the erodibility of the sediments o If two bends intersect the river will take the higher gradient course 0 Silt and clay will deposit in former channel connectors lncised river channels are formed when there was a change in base level to an established river system Base level can change by 1 Uplift of the land pate tectonics 2 Sea level drop period of glaciation Drainage Networks Drainage Basin area of land which funnels all the water into streams draining the area Divide ridge of high ground along which rain runs off one side or the other Tibutary steams feed trunk steams Drainage Patters Surface drainage is controlled by the underlying materials and structures that the water ows over 0 Dendritic frat lying laters similar rock type Trellis folded rock layers Rectangular rock units cut by joints or faults Radial high mountain peak volcanoes Factors that In uence Stream Flow Velocity distance water travels divided by time fts ms speed Gradient change in elevation divided by distance ftmi sope Discharge volume of water passing a point on the stream bank per unit of time ftquot3s mquot3s Discharge area of stream channel x stream velocity Flooding Natural Levee ridges of coarse material built up during periods of ooding that act to con ne the stream within its banks Recurrence interval the average time between two oods given magnitude Depends on Climate Width of the Floodplain Channel Size Flood Frequency Curve Probablt the most misunderstood concept about oods The ood frequency curve is based on observed discharges and their magnitudes including ooding o A ood with a 10 year recurrence interval has a 1 in 10 chance of happening in any given year 0 The occurrence of a 10 year ood does not mean there will be no ooding for 9 more years 0 You can have more than one 10 year ood in a 10 year period Other Features of Streams Terraces Marks previous level of oodplain formed by renewed down cutting to lower based level Alluvial Fans Fan shaped accumulations of sediment Form where streams adjust velocity when leaving a narrow valley for a broad relatively at area Deltas Triangular shaped deposits of sediment deposited as streams enter the ocean and velocity slows Effects of Building a Dam A Original pro le graded to regional base level B Dam forms new local base level C Deposition upstream and erosion downstream