Chapter 11 Vocan
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Date Created: 04/06/15
CHAPTER 11 PERSONALITY Activity A temperament dimension characterized by the general expenditure of energy which has two components vigor intensity of the activity and tempo speed of the activity Archetype A Iungian concept of a symbol that represents some basic aspect of the world and is stored in the collective unconscious Big Five the five superfactors of personality extraversion neuroticism agreeableness conscientiousness and openness determined by factor analysis Castration anxiety a boy s anxietyladen fear that as punishment for loving mother and hating father his father will cut off his penis the primary zone of pleasure Defense mechanism an unconscious psychological means by which a person tries to prevent unacceptable thoughts or urges from reaching conscious awareness Ego A personality structure proposed by Freud that develops in childhood and tries to balance the competing demands of the id superego and reality Emotionality a temperament dimension characterized by an inclination to become aroused in situations in which the predominant emotion is distress fear or anger Expectancies Expectations that have a powerful in uence on thoughts feelings and behaviors and in turn on personality Flow the experience of being completely absorbed with and merging smoothly into an activity and losing track of time Id a personality structure proposed by Freud that exists at birth and houses sexual and aggressive drives physical needs and simple psychological needs Impulsivity A temperament dimension characterized by the propensity to respond to stimuli immediately without re ection or concern for consequences Inferiority complex the experience that occurs when inferiority feelings are so strong that they hamper striving for superiority Locus of control the source a person perceives to be exerting control over life s events Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory2 MMPIZ a personality inventory primarily used to assess psychopathology Neurosis an abnormal behavior pattern relating to a con ict between the ego and either the id or the superego Personality A set of behavioral emotional and cognitive tendencies that that people display over time and across situations and that distinguish individuals from each other Personality inventory a pencilandpaper method for assessing personality that requires the testtakers to read statements and indicate whether each is true or false about themselves Personality trait a relatively consistent characteristic exhibited in different situations Projective test a method used to assess personality and psychopathology that involves asking the testtaker to make sense of an ambiguous stimulus Psychological determinism The view that all behavior no matter how mundane or insignificant has an underlying psychological cause Psychosexual stages Freud s developmental stages based on each stage erogenous zones the specific needs of each stage must be met for tis successful resolution Reciprocal determinism the interactive relationship between the environment cognitive personal factors and behavior Repression A defense mechanism that occurs when the unconscious prevents threatening thoughts impulses and memories from entering consciousness Rorschach test a projective test consisting of a set of inkblots that people are asked to interpret Selfactualization an innate motivation to attain the highest possible emotional and intellectual potential Selfefficacy the sense of being able to follow through and produce specific desired behaviors Sociability a temperament dimension characterized by a preference for being in other people s company rather than alone Social desirability a source of bias in responding to questions on personality inventories that occurs when people try to make themselves look goodquot even if it means giving untrue answers Superego a personality structure proposed by Freud which is formed during early childhood and houses the sense of right and wrong based on the internalization of parental and cultural morality Temperament innate inclinations to engage in a certain style of behavior Thematic Apperception Test TAT A projective test consisting of a set of detailed blackandwhite drawings about which people are asked to explain various elements Unconditional positive regard acceptance without any conditions