Management 300 Week 11 Notes
Management 300 Week 11 Notes Finance 300
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Grek on Monday April 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Finance 300 at Arizona State University taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views.
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Date Created: 04/06/15
Management 300 Chapter 11 Notes Personality consists of stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his or her identity Big 5 personality dimensions Extroversion outgoing talkative sociable and assertive Agreeableness trusting goodnatured cooperative and softhearted Conscientiousness dependable responsible achievementoriented and persistent Has the strongest positive correlation Emotional stability relaxed secure and unworried Openness to experience intellectual imaginative curious and broadminded Proactive personality someone who is more apt to take initiative and persevere to in uence the environment 5 Traits Important in Organizations personality traits that managers need to know 1 Locus of control indicates how much people believe they control their fate through their own efforts External control indicates that you believe outside forces control you 2 Selfef cacy belief in one s personal ability to do a task Learned helplessness the debilitating lack of faith in one39s ability to control one39s environment 3 Selfesteem the extent to which people like or dislike themselves their overall selfevaluation 4 Selfmonitoring the extent to which people are able to observe their own behavior and adapt it to external situations 5 Emotional intelligence the ability to cope to empathize with others and to be selfmotivated This is composed of 4 key components selfawareness ability to read one s emotions selfmanagement ability to control one39s emotions social awareness and relationship management Organizational behavior OB dedicated to better understanding and management of people at work Looks at two areas individual behavior and group behavior Behaviors are people39s actions and judgements Helps managers to explain and predict workplace behavior Values abstract ideals that guide one s thinking and behavior across all situations Attitude learned predisposition toward a given object 3 components of attitudes 1 The affective component of attitude consists of the feelings or emotions one has about a situation 2 The cognitive component of attitude consists of the beliefs and knowledge one has about a situation 3 The behavioral component of attitude intentional component how one intends or expects to behave toward a situation Cognitive dissonance Leon Festinger used to describe the psychological discomfort a person experiences between his or her cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior Depends on three factors importance control and rewards Behavior people39s actions and judgements Perception the process of interpreting and understanding one39s environment 4 distortions of perception 1 Stereotyping the tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs Absenteeism when an employee doesn39t show up for work 2 Halo effect in which we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait 3 The recency effect selective perception the tendency to remember recent information better than earlier information 4 Causal attribution the activity of inferring causes for observed behavior Fundamental attribution bias people attribute another person39s behavior to his or her personal characteristics rather than to situational factors Self serving bias people tend to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure Seffufiing prophecy Pygmalion effect describes the phenomenon in which people39s expectations of themselves or others lead them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true 3 types of attitudes managers are interested in 1 Employee engagement an individual39s involvement satisfaction and enthusiasm for work 2 Job satisfaction the extent to which you feel positive or negative about various aspects of your work 3 Organizational commitment re ects the extent to which an employee identi es with an organization and is committed to its goals mportant workplace behavior 1 Evaluate behavior when employees are working Performance and productivity 2 Evaluating behavior when employees are not working Absenteeism and turnover Turnover when employees leave theirjobs Turnover can be expensive Onboarding programs help employees to integrate and transition to new jobs by making them familiar with corporate policies procedures culture and politics by clarifying workrole expectations and responsibilities 3 Evaluating behavior that exceeds work roles Organizational citizenship behaviors These are the behaviors that are not directly part of employee39s job descriptions that exceed their workrole requirements Making constructive statements and statements for improvement 4 Evaluating behavior that harms the organization Counterproductive work behaviors These are types of behavior that harm employees and the organization as a whole Diversity represents all the ways people are unlike and alike the differences and similarities in age gender race religion ethnicity sexual orientation capabilities and socioeconomic background Diversity wheel 4 layers Personaity lnterna dimensions of diversity those human differences that exert a powerful sustained effect throughout every stage of our lives Includes genden Externa dimensions of diversity an element of choice they consist of the personal characteristics that people acquire discard or modify throughout their lives Includes marital status religion parental status and educational background Organizational dimensions work content work location union affiliation management status Trends in workforce diversity Age more older people in the workforce Gender more women working Glass ceiling the metaphor for an invisible barrier preventing women and minorities from being promoted to top execquejobs Race and Ethnicity more people of color in the workforce Sexual Orientation gays and lesbians becoming more visible People with differing physical and mental abilities Americans with disabilities act prohibits discrimination against the disabled Educationa levels mismatches between education and workforce needs Barriers to diversity 1 Stereotypes and prejudices Ethnocentrism is the belief that one s native country culture language abilities or behavior is superior to those of another culture 2 Fear of reverse discrimination Resistance to diversity program priorities Unsupportive social atmosphere Lack of support for family demands GUIbod Lack of support for careerbuilding steps Stress the tension people feel when they are facing or enduring extraordinary demands constraints or opportunities and are uncertain about their ability to handle them effectively The source of this stress is called a stressor Sources ofjob related stress 1 Demands created by individual differences Type A behavior pattern are involved in a chronic determined struggle to accomplish more in less time 2 Individual task demands the stress created by the job itself 3 Individual role demands the stress created by others39 expectations of you Roles are sets of behaviors that people expect of occupants of a position Stress may come from role overload role con ict and role ambiguity 4 Group demands the stress created by coworkers and managers 5 Organizational demands the stress created by the environment and culture 6 Nonwork demands the stresses created by forces outside the organization Consequences of stress Symptoms of stress physiological signs psychological signs and behavioral signs Burnout a state of emotional mental and even physical exhaustion Alcohol and other drug abuse Reducing stressors in an organization buffers are administrative changes that managers can make to reduce the stressors that lead to employee burnout Empoyee assistance programs EAPs include a host of programs aimed at helping employees to cope with stress burnout substance abuse health related problems family and marital issues and any general problem that negatively in uences job performance Hoistic wellness program focuses on selfresponsibility nutritional awareness relaxation techniques physical tness and environmental awareness Create a supportive environment Make jobs interesting Make career counseling available Job involvement the extent to which a person identi es with or is personally involved with his or her job The formal asbects of the corporation are the goals hierarchy and structure According to a recent study the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment is moderately related and complex and it seems that both variables in uence each other Racial and ethnic populations in American businesses illegal immigrants make up 1 in 20 workers minorities tend to earn less than whites African American managers have a higher turnover rate than whites and AfricanAmericans receive lower performance ratings than whites In what ways does workplace stress affect job performance Moderate levels of stress lead to optimal performance low levels of stress lead to low performance and high levels of stress lead to low performance Organizational behavior an interdisciplinary eld that is dedicated to better understanding and management of people at work You can reduce cognitive dissonance by nding positive elements that outweigh the disssonant ones reducing the importance of the inconsistent behavior and changing your attitude and or behavior
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