ANTH 150 - Week 9
ANTH 150 - Week 9 ANTH150
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Day on Tuesday April 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH150 at University of Oregon taught by Professor Gallagher in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see World Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/07/15
ANTH 150 -Week 9 11/26/2013 ▯ “Lost” Cities ▯ Mythology and legends in Archaeology What’s “lost”? The city or the people? How do you lose a city? o Abandonment – location forgotten o destruction – no longer exists o name change - connection forgotten o never existed – exaggeration ▯ connection ”lost” cities to archaeological sites location traits - architecture, iconography, diet, etc. event – wars, natural disaster, etc. certainty impossible o limits of archaeological record o error/exaggeration in historical records/folklore ▯ ▯ El Dorado: City of Gold legend o Spanish explorers in the early 1600s develop the legends of a fabulously wealthy inland city in South America o later versions have the city located in different places - common quest Archaeology o Muisca people of Columbia, investiture ceremony for chief on Lake Guatavita Not the city of gold but the gold city? about one person? The gold one he would dip himself in gold dust? And swim in the lake and clean off… he would dump gold into this lake combined with other legends lost city of Z (=El Dorado)? o Explorer Percy Fawcett – early 1900), working form oral traditions and Spanish accounts o sophisticated city in the amazon o in the valley on a hill. Stone road, low houses, pyramids o this would change our perspective of these cities in the amazon - very sophisticated ▯ Archaeology of the amazon Modern indigenous Amazonian communities, ….. ▯ Could there have been a city in the amazon? Myth of the Amazon as an impoverished ecological zone that cant support large populations ▯ In fact. The landscape is much more heterogeneous Amazon can support high populations prehistoric populations actively improved poor soils post - AD 1500 depopulation has biased our views of Amazonian Society TERRA PRETA – better soil/ very rich ▯ Archaeology of the Upper Xingu 6 century AD – first farming societies in the region 1200s-1500s AD -organize into large communities – urbanizes- 30,000 – 50,000 people in region 1542 AD – Spanish…. ▯ Pre Columbian towns - Dense population in the Plaza, gardens, more gardens, roads connecting them all.. ▯ Troy: city of the Iliad Legend o Featured in the Iliad o 19th century debates over whether Homer is history of literature o precise location of the city is unknown archaeology o Heinrich Schliemann excavates at Hisarlik, Turkey o Had a better way to find the excavate – read all about the o found gold jewelry – he found it but he destroyed the excavation to get to the gold ▯ Atlantis and the Minoans Plato and the Story of Atlantis o First mention of Atlantis is in Plato’s dialogs – 350 BC o describes Atlantis as a major island based trading power in the Atlantic at 9600 BC o defeated by Ancient Athens, after destroyed by earthquakes and flood the Atlantis Myth is often… o of course, Atlantis is not only myth about the Minoans ▯ Archaeology of Minoan Crete – 3000-1450 BC (peak 2000- 1450 BC) Knossos, Crete o Palace – multi-functional building Residential….. listen o multistory buildings o decorated with colorful frescos o numerous religious shrines clay bull horns – with double sided axes storage ( jars = pithoi) – extremely large oils, wine, grains – stock piling food/resources o writing – linear A – undeciphered writing uncertainty of what palaces and other things o these palaces on this island have a “standard” what about the king? o No iconography of rulers no consensus on whether there was a royal family at Knossos – or … Trade networks “collapse” of the Minoan Civilization o palace at Knossos destroyed at least twice 1750 BC – earthquake – collapse and fire 1450 BC - ? associated with Mycenaean conquest? ▯ What about Atlantis? Santorini (thera) Volcano erupts between 1700-1600BC o One of the 5 largest volcanic eruptions of the past 5000 years o On this island there was a trade system/base/community from the Minoans ▯ Matching Myth to Archaeology – Atlantis/Minoan downfall Dates are wrong war is wrong - no Athens Minoan civilization does not end at time of eruption o agriculture affected o loss of ports ▯ ▯ Interpretations of Knossos influenced by mythology –not unique to Europeans ▯ Teotihuacan – abandoned 650 AD o Rises to prominence Ca 50 BC o Peak Population of up to 120,000 people (500AD) o abandonment (700AD) o largest pre-colonial city in America Grid system –city structure o “Apartment” complex center – avenue of the dead o many pyramids o pyramid of the sun – large solid pyramid – cave underneath o pyramid of the moon – each expansion there was a sacrifice o ritual offerings and sacrifices at the time of pyramid expansions o eagles – live pumas, and wolves were all ▯buried o obsidian ciudadela – southern part of the city o feathered palace? o writing system.. o no ball courts collapse - we don’t know o the city is sacked: destruction of religious items and looting people slaughtered many buildings burned o by 650/700CE city is virtually abandoned timing of population decline, city destruction, and abandonment unclear contribution/severity/casualty of various factors unclear who - if anyone – attacked the city unclear After Teotihuacan… o 10 -13 century : toltects ruling from tula…… o Teotihuacan as influence on Aztecs o Aztecs offer sacrifices regularly - may have even held investiture ceremonies at the site o artifacts brought from Teotihuacan to Tenochtitlan Teotihuacan : Nahuatl (Aztec) for “place where gods are born”? all of the names we use today for the structures and featured at the Teotihuacan are form the Spanish translations of Nahuatl terms ▯ ▯
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