Psychology 100 Weekly Notes (Feb 23/26th)
Psychology 100 Weekly Notes (Feb 23/26th) PSYCH 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christopher Raite on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Joshua Wede in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Lecture 10 – Storage & Retrieval Storage Sensory Memory – Main process – pattern recognition Icons & echos – Capacity – large but not unlimited – Duration – very brief (.5-5 secs) – Whole Report – Partial Report – Time Delay – The longer the delay the greater the memory loss. – Duration of sensory memory differs for different senses. Iconic- .5 Seconds- 1 second long Echoic- 3 -5 Seconds long Selective Attention – Attention processes act like a funnel More energy to processing what’s important Funneling out what isn’t Short-term (Working) memory – Encoding - visual/auditory Visual sketchpad & phonological loop – Capacity - “magical” number 7 Expand via chucking – Duration – 12-30 Seconds Maintenence Rehearsal • Chunking (1762,1841,1973) • Duration – Brown/Peterson and Peterson (1958/1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. Long-Term Memory – Essentially an unlimited capacity store. – Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986). • Types of long-term information – Procedural (Implicit) – Declarative (Explicit) Semantic Episodic • Memory Stores Retrieval: Getting Information Out – Recall- retrieve information learned earlier – Recognition – identify items previously learned Multiple choice test – Relearning – memory measure that examines time saved when learning material again • Retrieval Cues – Memories are held in storage by a web of associations – These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. – Encoding specificity • Context Effects – Scuba divers recalled more words underwater if they learning matched testing (Godden & Baddeley, 1975). • State Dependent Memory – Pharmacological state – 10 oz 80 proof vodka – Sober or intoxicated at study – Sober or intoxicated at test • Mood Dependent Memory – Mood Inducement Play happy or sad music Think happy or sad thoughts • Mood Congruent Memory – A given mood tends to cue memories that are consistent with that mood if you are depressed, you’ll tend to recall only depressing things if you are happy, you’ll tend to recall only happy things Infant Memory – Infantile Amnesia – Earliest age of conscious memory is around 3.5 years old (Bauer 2002) Related to our development of “self” Lecture 11 – Forgetting & Biology of Memory Forgetting – Inability to retrieve information, due to poor encoding, storage or retrieval. Serial Position Effect Remember info at beginning (primacy effect) and end (recency effect) of a list better than info in middle • How quickly do we forget? • We have some control – Spacing effect- distributed study leads to better retrieval than massed practice Studying 1 hour each night for 5 nights is better than studying 5 hours in 1 night. • Encoding Failure: Gorilla video – We cannot remember what we did not encode. – Which one is real? • Rehearsal Failure – Failure to connect new information with prior knowledge due to poor elaboration Tip of the tongue= poor retrevial Can say things about the word (number of letters, starting letter) but can’t retrieve the word Trace Decay Memory trace – physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed (a) Decay – loss of memory due to disuse • Interference – Although the information is retained in the memory store it cannot be accessed. • Interference – Proactive interference – Information learned earlier interferes with information learned later – Retroactive interference – Information learned later interferes with information learned earlier – Sleep avoids retroactive interference and leads to better recall. • Memory Construction – Memory is a constructive process – We filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent – Misinformation Effect Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event – Hindsight bias false belief (due to constructive processes) that one could/should have predicted the outcome of an event • Misinformation and Imagination Effects – Eyewitnesses reconstruct memories when questioned about the event. – Misinformation Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? – A week later they were asked: Did you see any broken glass? – Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit). • Source Amnesia – Attributing an event to the wrong source © 2012 Something we have experienced, heard, read, or imagined Related to misinformation effect • Eyewitness Memory – If you have no objective evidence, it is difficult to assess the accuracy of an eyewitness’s memory – Many countries do not allow for criminal prosecution if the only evidence is from eyewitness testimony • Discerning False Memories – Can we be really sure if a memory is true or false? – Short answer is no… – Need some other evidence – Not to say that all of our memories are false In fact most of them must be true Otherwise our life would be a mess • Implanting memories – A game of "Remember when . . . ?" where all but one of the events described is genuine. – Subject : 14-year-old boy named Chris – Confederate: older brother
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