Lecture 10- Bilingual Development
Lecture 10- Bilingual Development PSY/LING 34
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Texana Sonnefeld on Wednesday April 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY/LING 34 at University of Arizona taught by Louann Gerken in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Language Development in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 04/08/15
DISCLAIMER This note outline is made by LouAnn Gerken All text added in blue is mine Gerken L 2015 April 7 Bilingual Development University of Arizona Tucson AZ Bilingual Developmen r Our Questions Do children learning language without rich input make up For the lack of input in their generalizations Is there a critical or sensitive period for learning Can linguistic ability be dissociated From general intelligence ls language a unififed abilitiy phonoloyg syntax word learning How is language related to communication Two cases of bilingual developmen r 1 l tl m y l l quot l39iil l e These silualions are really 2 endpoinls of a confinuum Exposure lo bolh languages even if From birlh is seldom equal 1 some researchers eslimale lhal aboul halF of lhe children in rhe world are exposed lo rwo or more languages From birlh or very early life 2 circumslances each parenl speaks a differenl language ro fhe different native language paren rs speak one language and Frequen r carelaker eg babysiller grandmolher elc speaks ano rher Learning 2 languages From birth Bilingual children pass language milestones eg lst word 15 50 words etc at similar Show same time course ages as mOnOIlnguals asamonolingualchild F hi I hid Their total vocabulary across the two thgtinoiUQSLSawgras 20 might be in one languages matches that of monolinguals language and so inthe other But there may be a cost to early bilingualism in farms OF Speech Processingun Theyneedtogetfasterand betterat processing speech WILL BE ON THE LAST QUIZ Learning Minimal Pairs El Same I Switch 14 12 8 1o 8 75 I 39 o 2 6 2 8 4 l 2 14 Months 14 Months 17 Months 17 Months 20 Months 20 Months Monolinguals Billnguals Monollnguals Bilinguals Monollnguals Billnguals Consistent twhat we showing a b ger surprise showing a sign ficant change would expect at 14 months that they know the difference Age and Language Stanis p lt 05 Using Switch Procedure child is introduced with 2 new objects and hear the word it s called then at test they either get same label for the object or the opposite switch trial should perk up and say hey that s not right There is a lag in bilinguals that they don t notice a difference until 20 months than monolinguals noticed at 17 months Takes awhile to figure out the phonology of two language Learning 2 languages From birfh Some researchers lhink ha1L children exposed lo 2 languages 1 rs lrealL lhem as lhe same 2lhen nole 10139 here are differemL words 3 nally nole ha here are differemL synlaclic slruclures Evidence For one syslem for awhile children oflen know only 1 word For any concepmL eg eilher dog or perro sen rences produced using words From bo rh languages Learning 2 languages From birlh Evidence agains r 1 sys rem 30 overlap in vocabulary 2 words For 1 concep r children don i mix randomly children don i combine French words and German order don i mix a French ar ricle wi rh an English noun In Faci mixing rha r children do resembles code swi rchingquot in older bilinguals and children migh r be rrying ro do rhe same using mix and match words from different languages Learning 2 languages From birth Evidence that infants weigh the evidence 1 vs 2 languages Spanishha35vowe39s SpanishCatalan bilinguals distinguish Catalan equot Catalan has many more E at 4 mos and 12 mos Used reinforced head turn 39 Clapping monkey However Spanish only has e not and Spanish when they notice difference e is much more Frequent than either Catalan vowel monkey claps Child IS happy Perhaps due to the Frequency of Spanish e Catalan 8montholds lose their sensitivity to the distinction unimodal vs bimodal distribution 4 months hearing sound difference but don t realize 2 languages 8 months think is it one language or 2 languages 12 months sounds make a difference and they figure it out Ushaped curve Also seen in pasttense learning they learn it say it wrong and learn it again Babies would learn initially a preswitch Bene ts of Early Bilingualism period in AAB pattern creature they were looking for would pop up on the right babies anticipatory patterns looking right Cognitive Flexibility they switched the contingency and the creature would pop up on the left Bilingual were more flexible Eg le le mo predicts the picture on the right preswitch and on the left postswitch Cue Anticipation Fixation 1 lei mo vel 5 755 2 399 399 m0 quot 75 3 O O A 85 35 I I Reward Preswitch Postswitch Bilingual Flexibility Both get it pretty much by the end A 1 Proswitch 9 5 08 9 o 5 O C 06 4 m 8 5 04 4 I O 09 02 0 O o v v O I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 Trials Proportion anticipation m p P a 9 o 9 a 9 N O Bilinguals are getting there faster than monolinguals Postswitch o Monolinguals OBilinguals O O 3 if 3 1 at I O O O o i 5 Q L Q Q Trials Bilingual adults also show a 5 year delay in onset of Alzheimer39s disease compared with monolinguals Because you have to have a good executive function and being able to switch and keep on top of that Are lhere lrue bilinguals French and English voiced vs voiceless bilabial s rops b and p diFFerVOT B P Canadian French 8 and 28 ms Canadian English 28 and 48 ms By 1012 mos monolingual infanis discriminaie only lhe boundary oF lheir language BuiL bilingual inFanls discriminale boih boundaries These dala suggesl lhal lhe inFanls behave like 2 monolinguals occupying ihe same brain bu r as we have seen 39I39her e is a cos39l39m as you learn 2 languages you have 2 monolinguals in the same brain some studies disagree Are lhere lrue bilinguals Culler Mehler Norris and Segui sludy reenagers allending bilingual schools in London and Paris one parenl spoke English lhe olher French all subjecls viewed rhemselves as perfec rly bilingual les r of lhe role of syllables in language processing Are lhere lrue bilinguals Syllable s rruc rure differences be rween French and EngHsh French has s rric r syllable s rruc rure balance vs balcon English has ambisyllabici ry ballance vs balcony Monolingual French are Fas rer ro nd ba in ba lance and bal in balcon Monolingual English are Fas rer ro nd bae in bo rh ballance and balcony Are lhere lrue bilinguals Might be 2 monolinguals in one brain Whal would FrenchEnglish bilinguals do 1lisien lo French wilh French ears and English wilh English ears 2lislen ro every rhing like French Blis ren ro everyihing like English Are there true bilinguals Bilingual subjects asked to listen For syllables like ba or bal in words oF each language Some subjects showed Frenchlike effects For both languages some showed Englishlike effects For both Some listened like English and some listened like French Why What difference between these groups oF subjects could tell them apart Which is your mother s language What language do you think in Are there true bilinguals Not maternal language or other obvious Factors Bilinguals asked which language they would lose if they had to lose one The answer determined which pattern oF data they showed This study suggests that at the level oF perception there are no true bilinguals You arebiasedtoone What if you were in a horrible car accident and you lost one of your languages Which one would you want to keep This determined who listened with French or English ears Which one would your friend lose And they could guess which one they would lose correctly Learning 2 languages From birth Summary Many children grow up bilingual 500o of children inthe world Keeping the 2 languages separate is a challenge that is oFten mitigated at least initially by lspeaker llanguage approach made better by having both languages talking to you from early on as kids are exposed to more variability they need to learn how to keep them separate However as learners are exposed to more variability more speakers they need to nd other ways to determine iF the languages are separate and keep them separate Doing so has a cost which may mean that bilinguals piggyback both languages oFF a single Speech perception system 30th languages piggyback off the other Once speech signals get to the brain they have to determine which is which Bilingualism also has cognitive bene ts The routing 2 languages has benefits flexibility and active brain processes 2 It is commonly known that people who learn a second language in early childhood by anUt39e m7 appear to have native like pro ciency while people who learn after this age generally have poorer command over the second language This is called the eFFect in second language acquisition We can see the critical period effect most clearly in phonological production but it also exists in phonological perception eg under noising input condi39l39ions perception is still not that great can get by but is not the best as a native speaker 2nd Language Acquisiiion Criiical period in syniax using grammaiicaliiy jUdgemen39l39s morphology and syntax Johnson amp Newpori gave Chinese and Korean adulis grammaiical vs ungrammaiical seniences and asked ihem io judge eg ungrammaiical seniences had incorreci word order The boy the girl chased or missing deferminers I went to store Johnson amp Newport Data up to age oF arrival 7 people were able to make nativelike judgements performance declined to age oF arrival 17 270 39 260 b 25039 240 Mvan Score 230 gt 220 210 3m L 1 1 L L L Nahvo 3 7 810 1115 1739 Ago 01 Arrival how high people scored on the test of grammar judgment People who were native english speakers and had a high score were at the top As the age when they learned the language increased their ability decreased 1 JA39J Johnson amp Newporl Dala Early arrivals i l L 7 I r I showed a 234 z general linear i O 3 39 q rrend For I 55 39 a performance ro 245p decline wi rh age f w 39 q oF arrival 235 quot o a 2251 0 These are rhe L quot da ra For people 939 395 a arriving early L 1 A l J 1 2 4 5 8 to 2 4 TB Age Of Arrival People who came to US between ages 216 Chinese and korean People fall along the line at a downward angle Johnson Variability oF performance increased with age oF arrival so some older learners were nativelike and other quite poor SCurv i 391 039 These are the data For people arriving late amp Newport Data 0 Subjects Arriving Ages 1739 r 16 2va v v T I r 1 Y 39 0 T i Y ssor 240 f z q 233 39 I o 39 220 1 219 i q 2Co39 39 I q 130 i 394 13gt a 173 MC T 1 i L L4k 39 39 m 8 20 22 2 2c 28 30 32 3 36 38 40 Ace D39Arnval Ages 1640 data is scattered Johnson amp Newport Data different Forms were also easier or harder across the ages oF arrival word order was acquired by everyone different components of syntax were another problem use oF the determiners the or a was not Summary of L2 Acquisition There appear to be strong age oF acquisition eFFects on second language learning The eFFects are clearest in phonology There are also eFFects on syntax but these are varied eg word order is easy to learn Syntax isn t just one thing oertain aspects are not easy for everyone There are no noted effects on the ability to learn new words You can increases your vocab at any time
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