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Week 13 Notes

by: Rachel McCord

Week 13 Notes P155

Rachel McCord
GPA 3.8
Introduction to Psychology and Brain Sciences
Robert Nosofsky

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About this Document

These notes finish up the topic of Development and then delves into the topic of Social Psychology, particularly prejudice, attributes, and bias.
Introduction to Psychology and Brain Sciences
Robert Nosofsky
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel McCord on Thursday April 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to P155 at Indiana University taught by Robert Nosofsky in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology and Brain Sciences in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 04/09/15
Week 13 Notes Recall we ended last week discussing the Sensorimotor Period Sensorimotor Period ages 02 0 Schemata revolve around babies sensory motor abilities 0 Early in first year babies lack object permanence They fail to realize that objects still exist when out of sight 0 Late in sensorimotor stage children still display the AnotB error 0 By age 1 Can remember and represent objects symbolically The Preoperational Period Ages 27 0 Schemata become more sophisticated but some errors still persist 0 Difficulty understanding conservation idea that fundamental physical properties objects remain the same despite superficial changes in appearance 0 Due to centration and difficulty in understanding reversibility I Video demonstration of children involving water fish and play dough o Egocentrism Seeing the world from one s own perspective only 0 Children in this period suffer from this they are unable to look at the world from someone else s perspective The Concrete Operational Period ages 711 0 Now have the ability to verbalize visualize and mentally manipulate objects 0 Understand reversibility conservation etc 0 Can perform elementary logical tasks math problem solving but 0 Difficulty with true abstract thinking I Example Hypothetical questions The Formal Operational Period ages 11 0 Approximately adolescence 0 Can consider imaginary concepts hypothesize think in abstract 0 Can use systematic ways of solving problems 0 Thinking is now adultlike Was Piaget Right 0 Wellaccepted contribution Children have unique schemata that change systematically over time 0 Challenges 0 Piaget tended to underestimate children s cognitive abilities such as object permanence 0 Stages may not be as rigid as he thought 0 Culture affects cognitive development too 0 Example Testing babies using a quotmagic trick with the Minnie doll and the screen Attachment in Infancy o Attachments Strong emotional ties formed to one or more intimate companions o How does attachment start 0 Contact comfort Warm physical contact 0 Harlow s research Newborn rhesus monkeys become attached to soft objects I What is a hard wire object gives food soft one gives nothing 9 Attach to soft object anyway Attachment Types o Gauges with the strangesituation test 0 Infant starts with strange room with its mother with toys around the room Wanted to measure the extent the infant will go around and play with the Mother there Then a stranger walks in to see how infant reacts Then the mother leaves with the stranger there to see how the infant reacts 0 Secure Upset when caregiver leaves happy when he or she returns 0 Majority attachment type 0 Most desirable category to be in o Resistant Upset when caregiver leaves but may seem upset when caregiver returns too 0 Avoidant Not upset with caregiver leaves little reaction when he or she returns 0 Disorganizeddisoriented Inconsistent The LongTerm Effect of Early Attachment 0 Some cautions 0 Attachment quality may vary over time across caregivers 0 Research findings are correlational Social Psychology 0 Social Psychology The study of how people think about influence and relate to other people 0 Social Cognition The study of how we use cognitive processes to make sense of other people and ourselves o Stereotypes o Stereotypes Collection of beliefs and impressions held about a group and its members I Share many of the properties of categories I Example Racial and gender stereotypes 0 Lead us to expect certain kinds of behavior from members of certain groups I Selffulfilling prophecy effect Expectations about a person s actions can cause a person to behave in that expected way I Snyder 1977 phoneconversation study 0 Stereotype threat I A fear of confirming an observer s negative stereotype I Evidence exists that such fear can cause one to behave in a manner that confirms the stereotype o Prejudice o Stereotypes can lead to overgeneralizations about people I They emphasize betweengroup differences without giving sufficient emphasis to withingroup differences 0 Prejudice Hostile or negative attitude towards people in a group based solely on their membership in that group 0 Discrimination When those beliefs lead to behaviors directed against that group 0 Stereotypic beliefs and prejudice may be activated automatically and unconsciously the implicit association test IAT I Measures bias I Consistent trials vs Inconsistent trials depending on who you are I In general subjects respond quicker for consistent trials than inconsistent trials which reveals bias 0 Attribution Theory o In social interactions we usually try to attribute behavior to one cause or another 0 Covariation model To explain behavior we look to an event happening at the same time I Consistency Does the behavior always occur with the event I Distinctiveness Does the behavior only occur with the event I Consensus Do other people behave similarly when the event occurs 0 Internal Versus External Attributions I We may attribute behavior to an external event or situation or to an internal personality trait or disposition I Based partly on covariation 0 When consistency distinctiveness and consensus are high we make external attribution situation 0 When consistency is high but distinctiveness and consensus are low we make an internal attribution disposition 0 Errors and Bias in Attribution I Fundamental attribution error FAE Tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors and underestimate the influence of external factors 0 Example 1 Ross 1977 study in which coin flips created knowledgeableness in quizgame experiment a coin flip determined who would be a quotquestionerquot and who would be a contestant o The observer s ratings of the two subjects general knowledge gave high ratings of general knowledge to the questioner guy than the contestant o The contestant s ratings were similar to observer s ratings 0 Questioner s ratings had his and the contestant s general knowledge rating the same 0 The situation drove the results but people attributed it to themselves and not the situation 0 Example 2 Jones and Harris 1967 Study showed that even when subjects KNEW that a person had been forced to express a particular opinion on an essay they tended to believe that the essay reflected the writer s true opinion Stanford Prison Experiment 0 Demonstration of role of situational factors in causing sadistic behavior 0 A social role is a pattern of behavior that is expected of a person when functioning in a given setting I The guards became more dominating hostile and sadistic I The prisoners became passive helpless and depressed Exception to FAE o Actorobserver effect Tendency to attribute our own behavior to external sources behavior of other to internal sources I But We make internal attributions for our own actions when they produce positive outcomes selfserving bias 0 Attitudes and attitude change 0 Attitude a positive or negative evaluation or belief that is held about something which may influence one s behavior 0 Attitudes have cognitive affective and behavioral components 0 Cognitive dissonance Festinger and Carlsmith 1959 Subjects induced to act inconsistently with true feelings often change those feelings Cognitive dissonance tension produced when people act in a way inconsistent with attitudes Reduced by either changing behavior or changing beliefs Example Subjects that were given 1 to lie about experiment gave higher ratings than those who were given 20 to lie about experiment People paid 1 experienced dissonance and their mind told them that the experiment maybe wasn t so bad actual change of attitude 0 The Power of Authority Obedience 0 Form of Compliance that occurs when people respond to orders of an authority figure 0 Milgram s 1963 experiment tested the predisposition of people to obey orders One of the most famous psychology experiments in history


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