HIST 1011 Class Notes from April 6-8
HIST 1011 Class Notes from April 6-8 HIST1011
Popular in History since the 1500s
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Rewerts on Thursday April 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST1011 at George Washington University taught by Hugh Agnew in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see History since the 1500s in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/09/15
3292015 Religion and the New State Constitutional limitations of established 39 r j y I religion 39 39 z 39 xT 7 4n x Loses exclusive in uence over education 39 j quotquot 39 39 r f i J f family life marriage and public morali a a I x 9 Roman Catholic response critical of 39 r 7 abuses of new secular power frequently conservative J Caricature of Germany s Bismarck and Pope Pius IX as the Church and State enter a new era of con ict 18705 itmit dn n 5mm mm Rum 7 t f x i I quotifquot 1 at a Centralization and B auiratization Eu i M 39 elndustrialization creat d rg r and mor fin J6 complex economy 6m v 4 ePor countries with overseas empires tron 51 W45 W 0 l g i i fi ifi fliii if i p x 0 6W m W51 3703 quotW W government to control even more deeply WA than before W WW 1 iii gmt how ms I 7 We is with NT 39s MN m Wand 941W NW at bf mm LO quot Militarization oWent hand in hand with centralizing and bureaucratizing Mass armies require logistical capability Desire for control by the central government 9 Examples Ottomans 18205 Germany Italy and Japan United States Civil War EthiopiaYohannes IV and Mener 3292015 1W W 330 vCVEW Slmfl JWMWW fm Satm 9f 3 75 1 Wm MrI WM 51225 g Chat9m car044 4 W 9 WON laxWA M mm 06439 WM Photography recorded the increased destmtm39veness of modern warfare here the dead at Gettysburg during the US Civil War The Ottoman armyi equipped with industrial weapons and trained by French and Prussian advisers became a catalyst of modemizing revolution A RAW 1quot lf TLN a m p39 I rlvi I x t I 1 an 1 we gaMg Jill 640 m 4 Wm 33H i39vams bag 0 0 an w my lg m a 441le 3292015 W44 j cm fan satm4 700 154 KIM1w M 12 7 5767L 1394 iv 34445 FW WC 6 18th century roots admiration of Greeks and Romans plus early Christianity 9 United States D39 trusted by Europeans in 19th century Kar Post1 and Alexis de Tocquevil 9 European states more democrati by end of century worship Political class grows o Expansion of the Mass newspapers clubs an sociations places of I y Camii miim Sm AWZQ 91 Mt Democracy pmum 64 W ML Wis A DMMES q0 m Wei4amp6 wield lo my h m WVM 631va 0 m KM Qmomu all minmg mt vale lbw i0 Mu ht SWWL ballot We siwleti wtci tmwd 1F 4 60 NW6d Mealm ism 8 We Wt mo wok U by WWW Stump Speaking American democracy in action and ide 3292015 MI ma Cmm jr W OW ka damnage Poster urging a quotyesquot vote in the referendum that would separate Norway from the Kingdom of Sweden 1905 Norway gave its women the right to vote in general elections in 19 13 Norma two 9 xer to Pr MUM1 Wt 14 Mr Socialism o Optimism about human nature 9 Utopian socialists attempt to create egalitarian rational soci i 9 Karl Marx and Scientific socialism Class struggle the engine of history Victory of workers proletariat over capital inevitable Leads to conclusion that political violence is good and natural Wm m groin 1mm 0 Mm lt v 3292015 Working Class and Politics 5 howigtwo4l5y New Unionism Political changes extension of franchise oKarl Marx comes into his own sziifi ilii f i ag isi m NW 91391th 1 0W co with 9 International Workers Movement First International 1 864 1876 Marx s in uence AppealorAnamhian m nmj W WAR OF AVA U M at I mm id mm W 51a of Wm WI Mikhail Bakunjn J Workers Movements and Political Parties 9 Spread of Marxist Socialism in uence of German quot r SocialDemocratic Party piwme lairoach name AWOFKK 30 W m up Es M5 x W 4 V Wonk CW W 39 W W M qWQfVl allnut WWW mile le Mum e Bntam Fablazuszm d the Labour WWW be W0 3 swam WM 9150 W Mint MUS MW mm 00 WM CMHRQ nil235 6 3292015 Socialism and its Limits Did all workers support socialists Other loyalties national religious Who is a worker o Challenges of success Revisionism and the German SDP Eduard Bernstein 18501932 Rosa Luxembng 1870 1919 Con icts over strategy and tactics up to WWI Which 0m Mg COWWWHfA 139 1 40m mom U Q The Revisionist and the Radical Eduard Bernstein and Rosa Luxemng The Real Winning Ism Utilitanamsm Jeremy Benthamw John Stuart MilL On Liberty 1859 Freedom a value itself individual liberties to be protected Utilitarianism and the Welfare State Not anticapitalist or antiproperty Fit centralized bureaucratized model Focus on public health welfare education mitigated ills of industrialization Undercut radicals protected existing elites M Ewz MJt VY1MJ w Q 3 Wva W WWWquot 201qu 2t Mru n abm 343 W it We Wit W mum to shuns 39 39 U l 3292015 Closing thoughts a TranIormation of the state More centralized bureaucratic and intrusive Why Industrialization and militarization demanded more revenue and more manpower a State education and social welfare systems Met needs of grown1g populations Also met demands of state and military 0 State concern for personal life of citizens Family and education became matters of the state Religion brought into fabric of state itself 0 Competition among European states increased not only for imperial territory but also for weapons g wiva 0 W 1192012 History 101110World History since 1500 Lecture 19 The World of the Mind Science and Culture in the Twentieth Century dimva U6 song fM39illtWL itchnglmn ll biDRUM J Q J I Western SCIence Rules El Western technology Western medicine both seemed to work I Hume and the Yale Hunan Clinic El Western Education in China and India h A I China SelfStrengthening 6 39 Viz 39q 9 El Mathematics at Beijing39s Foreign Language A Weillla W lm Medium El Medicine Beijing School of Medicine 1883 I v r competed with Chinese traditional medicine El Number of Chinese with Western educations W r Ch 0 Sillqu Kati wu mridq iim lt quot Yale39s Edward H Hume examining a Chinese patient of some I 5 standing at the YaleHunan Clinic v Willie W is also W4 fullH bah rim 3440a Aurora University in Shanghai established as a Jesuit school in 1903 taught both Chinese and expatriates Western style subjects Now part of Fudan University 1192012 g Cylill Slade bibCOle 10 U Western Sciencecontinued El India I Western schools since 18205 later also universities I In spite of ingrained British racism numbers of Indians trained in science and medicine signi cant by turn of century I By interwar years internationally recognized Indian scientists El Prafulla Chandra Ray chemistry U Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 Elscwligi e simian Milan Dink Emiliowia Vlad 2m M441 Vi pfml leis 47 f m y Prafuila Chandra Ray L and C V Raman r combined Westernstyle scientific learning with entrepreneurial skills and Indian public service and identity 1 431 69W agellamils L 1192012 iv WC WW pr 1 we Winks m Spread of Western Scientific Learning 18661961 Science Triumphant Science in Doubt D At same time as dominant worldwide science increasingly changing dramatically within El Technology new products communications all transformed lives and became more common El Science increasingly debated questions of knowledge and skepticism Physics and a New Reality Q P 39 UH itiEltca MOEZNV enri Pomcare questioned the w objectivity of scientists n39 M A a El Albert Einstein theory of relativity at lab Jr W explodes people39s image of the cosmos l Many longheld truths no longer hold u r 1 gt 7 E Ernest Rutherford quantum mechanic 3V l Piled up more contradictions about what we G j A ll 01 N1 NS t thought we knew about the world WV Nd 1192012 Affects Wider Culture Art El Emilio Marinetti s art saw science and technology as source of power order El Marcel Duchamp and Wassily Kandinsky influenced by Einstein s and Rutherford s work on physics in their abstract art El Cubism of Picasso and Georges Braque influenced by atomic theory No1 Gonna baa QM oral Human Sciences and Culture Who Are We El New Anthropology l3 Franz Boas I no race is superior to another I cultural relativism El Margaret Mead Samoa I a world liberated from the inhibitions anxieties and the neuroses of the West I Effect 0n education raising of children and understanding of sexuality lg JWUAQ 15731l6lt Q W Wllam 4A1 Pius 1192012 yNecwg Creel Margaret Mead and her Samoan collaborator Fa amotu 19205 Psychology and Psychoanalysis Are We Rational El Sigmund Freud FlampO CJ G bpqpq a l t I Challenged traditionalthought about 391 34 lt motivation and reason I Unconscious El Ellen Key I Studied children s psychology insisted they were different from adults I Stages of children39s development I Influence on education Ph osophy El Philosophy also contributed to undermine old verities I Henri Bergson we have the power to make a future different from the one that science predicts I William James truth is not what is real but whatever serves a particular purpose I Much philosophy occupied with language and its relationship to truth 1192012 Linguistics and Meaning 616596 km Ldmmt qk I parole speech addressed to others I Ian39gueiknown onlyto thought I Thus language refers only to itself not remoter realities El Ludwig Wittgenstein l we do not know what language refers to except its own terms El Noam Chomsky l structures of language linked to brain I hardwired into us unchangeable h J b l Lan ua e rowass is thes ecial skill like 5 eed quot f d blV is foq39 chgee ahs that humags possess p W1 1 w 34 Ix 0e ram W 7 4 39t 11 i1 W 510 n u c 5 Impact on Art and Culture l I F 5 l l U Art the individual expression of the artist A 0 39 not the community A 3 x LIN 1 Art ceases to play traditional role in the 39 f it Bequot UU r P West as a focus of public artistic expression quot I Also use for propaganda and commercial gain Ci In its place public art appears in cinema radio and television El Technology changedtransformed art I Rise of mass entertainment cartoons and rock arequot quot quot Gilasad wrol 0 We WW ark p R ml VANS 0 El At start of 20th Century Western science was ascendant 9 El In second half began to look again to East and elsewhere but for answers E Eastern countries too had incorporated much of Western science and technology for themselves Rejecting West Accepting East W 0 1192012 whit Mia s 61C 11L Miteg V J ti iiriiom i elicile doMb39lm 0 CuWW Q Science and Certainty El Science did not make people better Indeed l A its most influential roducts were wea ons and pollutants p p J I l El People turned to religion and magic for a answers and consolation I Quantum science opened the door to mysticism ill0 OF I mt g i gifsand faithhealing no longer seemed v fl El Science s inadequacies stimulated search for new humanism blames religion and SCience i313i iil yrisagii Ei 5 l iii a Bowl warm 1 7 Cl Mid c l Cir pl Poisz U 001056
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