US HISTORY Class Notes 4/6 & 4/8
US HISTORY Class Notes 4/6 & 4/8 1376
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meredith Johnson on Friday April 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1376 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lawrence Curry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 105 views.
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Date Created: 04/10/15
Notes History 1376 4615 Topic IX Expansionism continued Continuing from previous notes Congress approved the war Whigs were less in favor but felt they had no choice but to support the president patriotism questioned New Mexico territory seized Zach Taylor began moving troops into Mexico quotmanifest destiny gone to warquot Curry War went so well Americans began to consider annexing all ofMeXico O 0 quotWe believe that it is part of our destiny to civilize that beautiful country and enable its inhabitants to enjoy many of the blessings that we enjoyquot Even Polk began to think it was a good idea State official sent to Mexico City to negotiate settlement short of war disregarded this idea 0 0 Early February 1848 negotiated a successful treaty with Mexico and settling most of the outstanding disputes Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo By the terms Secured Rio Grande as Texas border Obtained New Mexico and California Agreed to pay Mexico 15 million Contrast Between Mexican War and 1812 1812 no new territory Mexican War new territory combined with Texas 12 million square miles 0 40 larger than Louisiana Purchase Most Americans regarded it as great American victory considered that the US had quotrealized its manifest destinyquot But not everybody as war continued and casualties and costs rose opposition intensi ed Many mostly Whigs called it quotMr Polk39s Warquot Some defended it as a quotjust warquot but most Whigs attacked it as an expansionist quotdrive for territorial spoilsquot accused president of initiating war in violation of the Constitution Abraham Lincoln privately expressed fears over power of the president to lead country into war 0 Letter to law partner If you give the President the power to invade other countries if he thinks it is necessary he may use this as an excuse to invade Also demanded that the President nd the quotexact spotquot that American blood had been spilled the quotSpot Resolutionquot 0 For his quotlack of patriotismquot lost much voter support Also opposed by many Northern abolitionists Most saw the war as an effort to extend slavery strengthen proslavery South 0 More territory more states more states more slave states Thoreau strongly opposed the war went to jail for refusing to pay taxes 0 Did not want his taxes going to an quotunjust warquot However opponents were in a distinct minority Although the new territory was part of manifest destiny also drew attention to the question of slavery WELCOME TO PART 2 OF THE COURSE Topic I America at MidCentury Prof Curry39s thesis 0 American culture reached the end of one stage of its development around 18361860 0 Had quotcome of agequot 0 Developed from British culture to quotsomething uniquely Americanquot 0 5 important components of American culture in mid18005 o Patriotism love of country A quotthemequot of the period Eagle seemed to symbolize America brave un inching etc etc ldolized Washington by this time had become an international hero Independence day had become the greatest patriotic ceremony almost sacred religious o Nationalism not the same as patriotism o Aggressiveness quothard chargers gogettersquot Not just individuals but the country the Mexican War an example 0 Religion Important to remember Protestantism pervaded American life 0 Not enough of other religion to have much of an effect Nonprotestant immigrants challenge the Protestantism of America 0 Number of immigrants increased about 900 Frightened these protestants Nativist movements argued that only nativeborn Protestants could really be Americans 0 Efforts to restrict immigration and deny RomanCatholics full citizenship rights 0 During the 1840s antiforeign societies began to spring up known as quotnativist groupsquot because opposed to everybody who was not a native born American Not the Native Americans but you know someone who wasn t already here White people 0 United to form a national organization the of cial name was quotOrder of the StarSpangled Bannerquot The quotKnowNothingsquot Because its members were sworn to secrecy when asked about it told to say they quotknew nothingquot 0 Despite their secrecy aims and purposes became clear defend Protestantism religious pseudo war more restrictive immigration laws deprive immigrants of right to vote Nativism reached political peak when KnowNothings won control of some state legislatures claimed 75 members of the US congress and in 1856 election formed their own political party the American party and nominated Millard Fillmore for president Promised never to vote for foreignborn or RomanCatholic candidate 0 Why were they successful 0 Appealed to the biases of voters 0 quotclean up politicsquot by excluding foreigners 0 Played on xenophobia and hatred of Roman CathoHcs Why did they fail 0 Turned out to be completely incompetent did not enact any of their programs could not govern quotAll hat no cattle all bark no bitequot o Discredited for several reasons Maintained secrecy to hide a secret conspiracy against democracy oh no Seemed antidemocratic Blamed for antiforeign riots Became absorbed in other issues and the issue that came to the forefront was slavery Seemed to turn against many quottraditionalquot American values religious toleration the quothavenquot of America Little effect on politics but important historically Religious revivals Revivalism did not end w the Great Awakening reached another peak between 1824 and 1850 O quotThe Second Great Awakeningquot Emphasized evangelical Protestantism the most revivalist denominations were doing the best Baptists Methodists 0 Had been small but now growing to great size and strength due to their evangelical nature 0 What were the effects 0 Emotion over reason as before 0 O O o Optimism Most Americans believed in progress looked forward to a future they thought would be better than their present Believed that the world in general America in particular was bound to improve This optimism led to a wave of reform movements Pious people set out to reform the country Attacked quotalmost every conceivable evilquot 0 A few important acts 00000 O Some actually discouraged education of the clergy feared quotknowing too muchquot Encouraged puritanism No smoking drinking dancing etc Extended Calvinism Most importantly encouraged reform Abolitionism more on this later Paci sts Temperance antialcohol Antiprostitution Improve the treatment of those in public institutions prisons asylums etc Public school movement Feminism increased rights for women Seneca Falls 1848 Lucretia Mott led the group that declared quotall men and women are created equalquot Dietary reform Vegetarianism Some opposed the use of bleached flour 0 Sylvester Graham selfstyled quotdoctorquot 0 To discourage sexual arousal encouraged bland diet Perhaps most important reform of women39s clothing Amelia Bloomer campaigned against women39s rights and quotrational dressquot clothing that did not restrict the movement of the body corsets etc 0 An exception social reformers often ignored urban factory workers remained largely ignored until the beginning of the 20th century How to explain these reforms Partially just so much needed to be xed 0 More importantly connected to the surge in revivalism o quotDisinterested benevolencequot doing something good for someone that was not your familysomeone you didn39t know 0 Encouraged quotTrue Christiansquot to be disinterestedly benevolent do good for others 0 Some Conclusions 0 Culture quotbursting with vitalityquot Americans aware of their uniqueness their American5m 0 But problems working against their optimistic selfimage Industrialism Immigration Racism related to immigration 0 Could slavery and America coexist Questions for the future how will Americans deal with these problems Notes History 1376 4815 Topic ll remember we re on part 2 now growing controversy over slavery Prof Curry on the civil war not the most important thing to happen to the US but a national crisis strips a nation of its irreevancies reveals the most essential components a quotrefining firequot Probably not on a test but interesting to think of Slavery a problem but society could not cope in fact many denied it was a problem 0 White southerners often denied slavery was not a problem or if it was it could be solved by white southerners not outsiders The existence of sa very in the US produced a moral crisis that tore the country apart The moral problem of slavery is the center of any explanation of the American Civil War 0 After 1830 became a morally divisive issue as it had not been before 0 Why 1830 quotGood societyquot debates Debates about slavery and the future of slavery in the United States One side of the debate argued by those against slavery America was God39s promised land with one exception slavery But that wasn t ok So slavery had to end 0 And some even pushed for black integration into American society not just freedom but full social integration The proslavery argument 0 A good society was an aristocratic one that slavery as it existed in the South was necessary foundation for such a society Slavery was a good thing a positive thing etc Remember do not confuse white Americans attitude towards slavery with their attitude towards race Can oppose slavery but still believe blacks were inferior Most white northerners hated slavery most white southerners defended slavery but agreed that blacks were inferior Slavery not race that separated North and south Antislavery and abolitionist movement As early as colonial America some colonists questioned morality of slavery o the Quakers especially noticeable in this Not until revolution did antislavery movement gain signi cant number of supporters a number of people in the revolutionary generation saw that slavery was incompatible with principles of freedom liberty etc 0 Cannot believe in inalienable rights while depriving slaves of theirs So by the end of the Revolution slavery no longer existed in the north But slavery in the south 0 They did take some limited steps to end slavery Outlawed slave trade passed laws making it easier for slave owners to free their slaves Most southern leaders at the time of Revolution believed slavery would disappear on its own in the south Example northwest ordinance 1787 0 Banned slavery from Northwest Territory 0 Supported by both northern and southern representatives The abolitionist movement had national support both north and south By 1826 80 of the antislavery societies were in the southern states 0 Most popular society American Colonization Society 1816 Chapters in every state but South Carolina Committed to two main goals Gradual emancipation Colonization o Freed slaves would not live in the US but sent off to live in colonies elsewhere usually Africa 0 This was not a new idea Jefferson proposed quotreturningquot American slaves to Africa Good example of antislavery racists believed that blacks could not go on living with whites in America even after they were free In 1820 sent a shipload of 88 blacks to Africa 0 Where they almost immediately died 1822 Liberia was established to receive future freedmen Two things working against them Seemed more interested in colonization than emancipation more interested in getting rid of freedmen than ending slavery More troubled by the blacks who were not slaves than the blacks who were slaves Mathematically clear to most people even if the society was committed to ending slavery the solution was not possible 0 Revolutionary generation thought slavery was dying because it was not economically pro table 0 But in 1793 the cotton gin was invented 0 So using slave labor to grow cotton became economically pro table 0 Increased demand for southern cotton caused cotton value to increase dramatically so plantation owners grew more cotton acquired more land and more slaves Increased demand for slaves produced increased price 0 So the increasing number and value of slaves in the south meant the ACS could not deal with these conditions Could not keep up 0 Emancipated fewer blacks per year than were born in that year 0 So while many Americans continued to support the ACS goals it was clear to most others by the early 1830s that gradual emancipation was not working 0 So in the 1830s abolition came onto the scene Sources 0 Church Clearly stimulated by the religious revivalism of the time encouraged a general reform movement across the nation Many abolitionists had associations with evangelical Protestantism many had practice in reform in other reform movements especially the temperance movement 0 Charles Grandison Finney great revival preachers urged them to quotaim at being useful in the highest degree possiblequot 0 Started off working for temperance then public school education and then abolition Abolition in Great Britain no slavery in England but there were many slaves in parts of the British Empire Parliament passed laws that abolished slavery throughout the British Empire and inspired Americans to oppose slavery borrowed arguments even brought over speakers to argue against slavery Well the ACS wasn t working Gradual emancipation and colonization No hope of succeeding Encouraged abolitionists to nd another way 0 Beginning of the abolitionist movement properly 0 Boston Liberator First issueJanuary 1 1831 dedicated entirely to aboH on Edited by William Lloyd Garrison Became most famous if not most effective abolitionist in America Wrote the preface to Fredrick Douglass39 book the one we read The rst edition Garrison explained that the Liberator favored immediate emancipation of all slaves Promised to use the paper to agitate aggressively for quotthe immediate emancipation of our slave populationquot First editorial quotLet southern oppressors tremble I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice Tell a man whose house is on re to give a moderate alarm tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the re into which it has fallen I am in earnest I will not equivocate I will not excuse I will not retreat a single inch AND I WILL BE HEARDquot Most subscribers free blacks living in northern cities August 1 1831 0 Nat Turner s revolt Terri ed the South 0 Of cial explanation Nat Turner revolt was caused by quotoutside agitatorsquot Not that slaves were angry quotUndoubtedly designed and matured by unrestrained fanatics in some of the neighboring statesquot 0 Garrison blamed Backlash against Garrison and the Liberator made it famous 0 Note It had had no circulation in the south no evidence that Turner had ever seen a copy or ever heard of Garrison But hey remember perception versus reality 0 Distinguishing characteristics of abolitionists Called for an immediate emancipation of all slaves Some confusion not all abolitionists meant the same thing 0 A few abolitionists like Garrison used immediate literally free slaves at once 0 Others meant to begin doing it immediately continue emancipation until all slaves were set free 0 quotImmediate emancipation graduay accomplishedquot Focused on slavery entirely as a moral problem 0 Not as a social institution or economic institution 0 Angelina Grimk prominent feminist white female abolitionist run out of South Carolina for her attitude 0 To southern white women quotI appeal to you my friends as mothers are you willing to enslave your children You start back with horror and indignation at such a question But why if slavery is not wrong to those upon whom it is imposedquot o A radical thought that blacks were human beings Wow So radical James G Birney o Owned an Alabama plantation but freed all his slaves o quotSlavery is a sin before Godquot 0 quotIndividually or as political communities men have no more right to enact Slavery than they have to enact murder or blasphemy or incest or adulteryquot In light of the revivalism movement this moralistic view is unsurprising Consequences abolitionists concerned only with slavery as a sin made it dif cult to work poiticay since compromise was sin and not acceptable but politically compromise is sometimes essential 0 But how can one compromise with evil 0 Declaration of National AntiSlavery Convention 1833 Slaveowners are quotMANSTEALERSquot Slaves are to be instantly set free before God all laws admitting the right of slavery are null and void quotGreat benevolent and holy causequot Unlike earlier antislavery advocates were not optimistic Not full of con dence often seemed bitter and frustrated good reason The institution they opposed seemed to get stronger every year despite their agitation against it A diverse group of people but unlike other groups operated entirely outside the South 0 Earlier movement had been national in scope some southerners and former slaveowners joined the abolitionist movement but they had to leave the South 0 Slavery became so pro table in the South 0 South developed a prosecution complex 0 Blamed abolitionists for slave revolts They gave up hope of working with slaveowners persuading southerners that slavery was wrong Turned to attacks on the South and the Southern slaveowners 0 Garrison editorial quotsooner trust the honor of the country and the liberties of the people in the hands of the inmates of our penitentiaries and prisons than in Southern hands for safe keeping they are the meanest of thieves and the worst of robbers We do not acknowledge them to be within the pale of Christianity of republicanism or of humanityquot Namecalling and lack of compromise led to polarization Originally a very few in number A quotprophetic minorityquot Comprised less than 1 of the total population At rst very unpopular even in the north 0 1835 a reliable newspaper noted that most Northern and Westerners considered slavery to be a great moral and national evil and wished it were removed but also believed the national government had no right to interfere with slavery Slavery was wrong but the government was not allowed to interfere with it 0 Most people didn39t like it but didn39t want to hear about it either Said the abolitionists were dividing the country unpatriotic to criticize the government nothing could be done but ignore the situation and hope it would go away 0 Sometimes resulted in violence Garrison mobbed several times 0 Riots against abolitionists in other cities 0 One publisher of antisavery magazine in Illinois had press destroyed three times and then killed 0 Signi cance of the abolitionists Forced Americans to talk about slavery Demanded they do something about it even though most American did not want to hear about it talk about it etc Insisted on an immediate end to slavery Some abolitionists even demanded that freed slaves be fully integrated into American society 0 This was a radical idea Upset many white northerners and southerners many whites who despised slavery aso despised blacks A strong reaction from South the proslavery argument 0 Would this produce an irreconcilable con ict De nitely caused a great mora gap hard to bridge short of violence Next time the Southern response to the abolitionists Ante Belum South and the proslavery argument
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