International Terrorism PSC 321
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday April 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 321 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Frazier in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see US National Security in Political Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/10/15
International Terrorism 0 Factors to consider when deciding if international terrorism is a US national security issue 0 Number of fatalities from attacks 0 Number of incidents 0 Type of incidents level of potential severity 0 Location of incidents What is terrorism 0 Key components to terrorism 0 Deliberate threat or act of violence 0 Political motives o Noncombatant casualties 0 Specific audience 0 Fear as an effect not as a byproduct 0 State Department s definition of terrorism 0 quotpremeditated politically motivated violence perpetuated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents usually intended to influence an audience 0 International in international terrorism involving citizens of more than one country Theory of Terrorism 0 Terrorism as a means to an end gt terrorism is an avenue through which people achieve a goal 0 Terrorism is seldom mindless or irrational gt terrorists act for a reason 0 Mass murder is not the main objective of terrorism gt favor small frequent attacks 0 Credible threat and capabilities are more important than actually carrying out the threatdeed Purpose of Terrorism o Gain specific concessions gt ex prison exchanges release our members or face an attack 0 Gain publicity gt media focuses on attacksdeath thus giving terrorists media attention 0 Create widespread disorder gt people will look for protection so terrorists step in o Provoke repression and counterterrorism by those it attacks 0 Enforce obedience and cooperation gt use intimidation to make ppl support a terrorist group 0 To punish enemies gt enemy A did X so it needs to be punished o Gain control of regimes and territory Strategies of Terrorist Groups 0 Attrition gt fight an enemy until the enemy can t fight any more 0 Spoiling gt sabotage spoil peace negotiations o Intimidation gt threaten politiciansleaders to force them to concede to terrorist demands 0 Outbidding gt competition bwn terrorist groups to gain leadership and followers 0 Provocation gt attack a state and enrage it to the point that it will attack back International Terrorism and Islam 0 Main location of terrorist violence is in Middle East where Islam is prominent 0 Islamic radicalism has influence the emergence of terrorist groups 0 Radicalism has influenced the rise of violent extremism Terrorism by the numbers 0 Since 00 107000 terrorist incidents have occurred 0 82 occurred in 5 countries gt Iraq Afghanistan Pakistan Nigeria and Syria 0 Only 5 occurred in the West 0 In 2003 18000 deaths were attributed to terrorist violence 0 Compare with this the 2012 global number of homicides which was 44000 0 66 of terrorist attacks in 2013 were conducted by ISIL Boko Haram Taliban alQaeda terrorism is a national security interest not necessarily because of a direct threat it poses to the US like an attack on the homeland but rather because of the instability it causes in the Middle East 0 Regional political instability can breed other issues that can then threaten the US 0 Instability affects I oil supply impacts US energy security and economy I human rights US s NSS focus on universal values I democracy US s NSS focus on international order 0 Likely test question Should US be concerned about terrorism 0 Yes US s concern should focus on regional instability terrorism produces Structure of terrorist groups 0 Think of the structure of terrorism as being a pyramid starting with the base 0 Underlying conditions gt things that allow terrorist groups to form I Ex poverty corruption conflicts social inequality I Process of alienation alienation occurs when ragehumiliation and radical ideology intersect 0 When people feel alienated they turn to something ie terrorist groups that makes them feel included 0 International environment gt context in which terrorist groups form I Ex globalization technology internet global financial networks 0 States gt where terrorist groups are located I States can harbor terrorist groups and serve as safe havens o Allows terrorist groups to trainorganize I virtual state finance and communication networks 0 Organization gt loosedecentralized vs hierarchical I Membership I Security I Resources finances weapons etc 0 Leadership gt single leader or a group of leaders I Leaders provide overall vision and strataegy of the terrorist group I Loss of leadership gt effect on the terrorist group depends on how the group s leadership was structured o Hierarchical structure usually one leader easier to fightdefeat once that leader is eliminated 0 Loose structure usually more than one leader harder to fightdefeat because eliminating one leader does little to stop the group Future of International Terrorism 0 Cooperation and coordination among terrorist groups 0 Will allow them to increase their strength and expand their target areas bad for us 0 Weapons of Mass Destruction WMDs o More offensive actions against terrorist groups by global community WMDs gt why terrorists might use WMDs o WMDs can be used wo detection 0 Alternative course of action bombs nukes are worse 0 Unconcern wpunishment WMDs are a national security concern for the US gt need to focus on how to respond to WMD attacks WMD DimensionsTypes 0 Chemical agents 0 Chemical weapons noxious industrial chemicals 0 Biological agents 0 The type of agentpathogen selected is important o How the agentpathogen is used is important 0 Goal of biological warfare instill fear in the public 0 Psychological and physical effects I Psychological fear paranoia insecurity I Physical death sickness 0 US anthrax scare quotAmerithraxquot 1 billion in damages 0 Radiological Dispersion Device 0 Use of radioactive material 0 Psychological and physical effects same as for biological agents 0 Ex twin attacks at Los Angeles and Long Beach ports 34 billion in damages 0 Nuclear Weapons War against terrorism o Shortterm policy vs longterm policy 0 How to reconcile immediate action costs with future results benefits 0 Need to attack the underlying conditions that allow terrorism to develop I Shortterm attack the underlying conditions I Longterm reduce the potential for more terrorist groups to form 0 Democratization 0 Promote democratization has a shortterm policy reform to stop the spread of terrorism 0 Deterrence of WMD attacks 0 Management not resolution 0 Goal of winning the war on terror is unrealistic I Terror will always be present Instead states should focus on how to minimize the extent of damage caused by attacks States should learn how to prevent the establishment of new terrorist groups I Contain terrorism 0 Managing terrorism hopefully lead to less terrorist attacksless terrorist groups closer to resolution of making the world a safer place CounterTerrorism o Counterterrorism actions taken to fight against and prevent terrorism 0 Key aspects of counterterrorism 0 Foreign policy decisionmaking I Take a retrospective view of our actions and see if we are offending other states offending others may provoke them to attack us 0 Identify full range of threats I Understand the capabilities of terrorist groups 0 Fracture and disrupt terrorist groups I How to weaken them How to take out their leadership 0 Selective and varied use of tools I Terrorism is a nonconventional warfare and requires to technology and methods 0 Peace negotiations to resolve underlying problems I Key question should we negotiate with terrorists 0 Reality yes avoid public negotiations with terrorists I when negotiating with terrorists you need to have specific demands and goals in mind 0 Engagement of state sponsors to terrorism I Work with states that sponsor terrorism to get them to stop their sponsorship 0 International cooperation I Multilateralism vs unilateralism I Power in numbers many states working together can hopefully be more efficient and effective in combating terrorism US CounterTerrorism Policy No concessionmaking gt do not give into terrorists demands Bring terrorists to justice gt treat terrorism as a criminal offense 0 Bringing terrorists to court denies them legitimacy and makes them look like criminals Isolate and pressure states that sponsor terrorism Improve counterterrorism capabilities of states that work wUS US Goals End States Protect Americans the homeland and US interests Disrupt dismantle degrade and defeat alQaeda Prevent the development acquisition and use of WMDs Eliminate safehavens Build permanent counterterrorism partnerships and capabilities Degrade links bwn alQaeda and its affiliatesadherents Counter alQaeda s ideology Deprive terrorist groups of financial resources US Areas of Focus relating to terrorism Domestic S Asia SE Asia Central Asia Arabian Peninsula East Africa Maghreb and the Sahel North Africa Europe Iraq avoid overly focusing on terrorism bc doing so diverts US attention from other problem areas
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