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Week 13

by: Notetaker

Week 13 HIST 2340W

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US Diplomatic History
Professor Brasinzky

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Include lecture notes for week 13. During Nixon, Reagan and Carter's term policies.
US Diplomatic History
Professor Brasinzky
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Notetaker on Friday April 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2340W at George Washington University taught by Professor Brasinzky in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see US Diplomatic History in History at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/10/15
Week 13 Nixon Kissinger Diplomacy The failure in Vietnam led Americans to question if rather it was really their destiny to interfere in the rest of the world China 1968 was beginning to emerge from the culture revolution forced by MAO The USSR was more dependent on the west D tente and the USSR urging negotiations and conversation between both sides I Kissinger is rejecting the Wilson idea that the USA has an obligation to protect the outside world because it leads the USA foreign policy to shift back and forth between isolation and interventionists I Policy needed to assure Balance of power National interest is moral It would reduce the probability of war Get away from Wilsonianism 0 Linkage and the soviet Union Classic and cleric diplomacy Recognize the boundaries of eastern Europe if the USSR make concessions on this important berlin issue the capitalists wanted I Strategic arms limitation treaty SALT They agreed not to develop antiballistic missiles Froze the number of weapons each country would contain 0 Eastern Europe I Recognition of boundaries Nixon is willing to negotiate d tente USSR is an economic threat yet not necessarily an ideological threat Nixon and Mao 0 Wanted to change perspective of china as well and their legacy in Korea and Vietnam has created hostility between USA and China I Nixon wants to change that o For Nixon the most significant threat come from the possibility that it will remain isolated from the rest of the international community and the world 0 Idea that China should naturally be able to supply markets for American goods their main goals is to improve relations between USA and China I Lifted some trade barriers I 19719 Kissinger made a secret trip to China China Motives 0 Recognition of the PRC derecognition of Taiwan I China was longing for the end of two Chinas o Counterbalance the Soviets I Late 1960s hated the soviet revisionists more than American imperialistic Wanted a stronger American interest 0 Improve relations with other free worldquot nations American motives o Honorable withdrawal from Vietnam Get China to pressure Vietnamese for settlement 0 Cooperation against the soviet on some issues 0 Make it easier for the United States to reduce its presence in Asia Common interests 0 Stability on the Korean peninsula 0 Contain India and protect Pakistan in the aftermath of 1971 war 0 Increase trade Shanghai Communique 0 China won t exacerbate tensions in Korea and Vietnam 0 China and USA won t cooperate with Soviet Bloc 0 Both countries oppose efforts of any power to dominate Asia 0 Taiwan is part of China Nixon Doctrine 0 US honors its treaty commitments 0 USA would provide nuclear shield for allies o In other kinds of threats US would provide military and economic aid but allies must defend themselves Angolan Civil War 0 MPLA socialist and supported by the Soviets and Cuba Agostino Neto o FNLA anticommunist and supported by the United States 0 UNITA African Nationalist militants supported by China Kissinger Cuba and Angola 0 1975 Kissinger decides to aid the FNLA by using the CIA and encouraging South America to send forces 0 1976 Cuba sends 30000 troops to support the MPLA 0 Cuba and MPLA within but UNITA continues to fight Two sides fought on land off civil war until 2002 Norodom Sihanouk o Argues that the south Vietnamese forces could not hold their own Kissinger launched a series of bombing raids in Cambodia with some powerful bombs known at the time o Insisted in his right to neutrality Lon N01 0 in the context of Vietnam war Nixon sent troops to attack Cambodia along with south Vietnamese troops into Cambodia o it was announced to the entire country and provokes widespread protests USA presence at Cambodia at the time paved the way of communist invasions Salvador Allende 0 19709 elected in Chile 0 USA perceived them as authoritarian and a marxisist 0 Shows some signs of pragmatism 0 Was ultimately viewed as an anastrophe which could become communist read the memorandum in blackboard 0 USA leads to a coup in Chile by Augusto Pinochet I Conducts 300 political executions within 19 days of power I He was a reliable American ally and began to eventually liberalize economic development Thursday s Lecture Anwar elSadat Egypt Attempts peace initiative in 1971 but fails Faced with domestic discontent within Egypt Ioins with Hafez alAssad in attack on Israel End of D tente Arab Israeli War 0 Kissinger acted a mediator isolate USSR and bring the two together 0 But the fact that USSR got involved in the first place shows that the soviets still cannot be trusted o Contributed to a weakening of detente in the USA and also in USSR IacksonVanik and Human Rights Henry M Iackson The IacksonVanik Amendment and the question of Jewish emigration 0 He pressured Kissinger not to give up too much of nuclear deals because it was important that the USSR should reciprocate 0 Question of Jewish emigration 0 Was an amendment that Jackson passed because Nixon and Kissinger allowed greater number of Jews to emigrate it brought them into con ict which didn t want the talented Jews to go to Israel 0 USSR stop Iewish emigration all together Carter Foreign Policy Emphasis on Human Rights 0 Change the tone and the content of the American foreign policy and talks about the fundamental basis of foreign policies will be 0 Spread human rights to create fundamental change in the interest of foreign policy 0 Carter is saying that we focus on human rights and then they will attain global democracy 0 Carter s insisted in moralism for him did not necessarily mean that they would create tensions with allies Arms control 0 Condemns the USSR increase of arms 0 Proposes dramatic cuts to the size of nuclear weapons 0 Especially because USSR also started to have in uence in the third world Success and limits of Camp David Accord 1979 Peace treaty and Menachem Begin Visit to Egypt Israel Returns Sinai and Egypt will deal with Israel peacefully Carter could only get Sadat to participate no other Arab leaders involved No solution to the problem of the West Bank TorrijosCarter Treaties Abrogate Hay BunauVarilla Treaty signed under TR Panama will regain control over canal after 1999 US retains right to defend canal since it is neutral water way Zbigniew Brzezinski National security advisor His ideas are different from carter s because he puts a greater emphasis in power Brzenzinski s hard line approach China Card Greater defense and intelligence cooperation with PRC 0 Using China to counter the Soviet union 0 Calls for things such as greater defense and intelligence between China and USSR 0 Promoting alliance between USA and China in order to counter the Soviets Covert support for national independence movements in USSR Carter s Difficulties Divisions among advisors 0 His advisors said different thing and proved his foreign policy weak Friction with Breznhev 0 Every country got a report cardquot on human rights violation but they ignored the rights infringed in China 0 There are differences between our system but is does not mean that USA and USSR have to be enemies 0 They try to coop the soviet union some areas where they can cooperate human rights and there are basic fundamental human needs and human politics trying to coop the soviet and ask for their cooperation 0 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 0 Event that destroyed D tente o USSR installed a pro soviet government in Afghanistan after their soviet leader was overthrown o Brzenzizki worried that the Soviet union might succeed I the soviet decisiveness needs to be met with American decisiveness The main reason for Carter s failure in policy was because of the Iran Hostage Crisis led in 1979 by Iranian students 0 US diplomats were held hostages abroad by this weak and new radical government USA had to strengthen itself militarily and in power around the world but Carter loses the election and Reagan wins the election


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