Chapter 30 - BIOL 1320
Chapter 30 - BIOL 1320 BIOL 1320
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ailia Owen on Friday April 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1320 at University of Houston taught by Brian C Mahon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 04/10/15
Chapter 30 HOW Animals Move 41015 929 PM MOVEMENT AND LOCATION 0 Movement is diverse but relies on same cellular mechanism moving protein strands against one another using energy 0 Results from collaboration between muscles and skeletal system 0 Locomotion active travel from place to place requires energy to overcome friction and gravity 0 Swimming supported by water slowed by friction 0 Walking hopping running less friction between air and animal must resist gravity requires balance 0 Burrowing crawling great friction between animal and ground more stable with gravity move side to side or by peristalsis 0 Flying wings as airfoils for lift 0 Skeleton body support movement by working with muscles protect internal organs 0 Hydrostatic fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment worms Protest body by cushioning them from shock Give shape Support for muscle action 0 Exoskeleton rigid external skeleton Arthropods chitin and protein I Must shed to permit growth Mollusks calcium carbonate shells o Endoskeleton hardleathery supporting elements among the soft tissue of an animal Vertebrates cartilage and bone Sponges framework of tough protein fibersmineral containing particles Echinoderms hard plates beneath skin TH E VERTEBRATE SKELETON Axial skeleton supports trunk of body 0 Skull 0 Vertebrae Cervical 7 Thoracic 12 Lumbar 5 Sacrum Coccyx o Ribs Appendicular skeleton bones that anchor the appendages o Arms Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals o Legs Femur PateHa Fibula Tibia Tarsal Metatarsals Phalanges o Shoulder girdle Clavicle scapula o Pelvic girdle 0 Master control genes homeotic active during early development 0 Direct arrangement of skeleton 0 Bones fibrous connective tissue covering the outer surface forms new bone when fractured o Cartilage at end of bones Cushions joints Reduces friction of movement 0 Living cells secrete a matrix surrounding material Protein coagen flexible fibers keep bones fexibe Crystals of a mineral made of calcium and phosphate resist compression 0 Long bones Central cavity store yellow bone marrow Spongy bone at end red bone marrow specialized tissue that produces blood cells 0 Osteoporosis disease of low bone mass and structural deterioration Less likely if n High calcium diet a Sufficient vitamin D a Regular exercise a No smoking 0 Joints allow limited movement of bones o Ligaments bands of strong fibrous connective tissue hold together bones of moveable joints 0 Ball and socket rotation in many directions shoulder hips o Hinge movement in a single plane knee elbow o Pivot rotation on one plane forearm MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND MOVEMENT 0 Muscle and bone interact to produce movement 0 Tendons connect muscle to bone 0 Can only contract requiring antagonistic muscle to reverse the action and relengthen 0 Muscle fibers cells consisting of bundles of myofibrils o Myofibrils Thick filaments composed of myosin n Bind ATP n Extend to high energy states a Attach to binding sites in actin n Pull thin filament to center of sarcomere Thin filaments composed of actin Sarcomeres the contractile apparatus fundamental unit of action O n Repeating groups of overlapping thick and thin filaments Sliding filament model sarcomere contracts when thin filaments slide along thick filaments n Contraction shortens the sarcomere without changing the length of thick and thin filaments a Full contraction thin filaments overlap at middle of sarcomere Skeletal muscle cells are Cylindrical Many nuclei Parallel to each other 0 Motor neuron carries action potential to muscle cell 0 O Releases neurotransmitter acetylcholine from synaptic terminal to initiate contraction Action potential in muscle cell passes along T tubules and into center of muscle fiber Calcium ions released from endoplasmic reticulum and bind to troponin gt moves tropomyosin away from myosinbinding sites gt allow contration Stopping action potential ER pumps Ca back out of cytosol gt binding sites to actin molecule blocked gt sarcomere stops contracting gt muscle relaxes Motor unit motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls Forceful contractions additional motor units activated
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