Chapter 5 - COMM 2320
Chapter 5 - COMM 2320 COMM 2320
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ailia Owen on Friday April 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 2320 at University of Houston taught by Craig Warren Crowe in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 231 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Media Production in Communication at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 04/10/15
CH 5 Directing most complex 41015 928 PM DIRECTING total visualization 0 Take a script and transform it into exciting images and sound 0 What type of soundsounds 0 Script has idea of what types of shots are to be used but the director may change 0 Use of camera shots 0 Multiple camera Timing n Running time how long a program lasts call out shots so you stay within time restraint n Timing in production n Ontheair timing stand by callers news Production switching Director s commands standby ready take cues Liveontape record like you are live can cut and redo Livetotape record like you are live no redo s 0 Single camera One looks like many mixing up shots and composition a Master shots medium shots between 2 actors I Inserts close ups of same action in different perspective a Cutaways other actor responding to dialogue or objects being referred to Continuity make sure clothing and things are consistent positioning a People specialize in keeping continuity Amount of drink in glass length of cigarette Shooting ratios minutes shot to used in final production bigger ratio more expensive when using film U 31 a 51 more for narratives n 1001 Terminology Understands Composition Image qualities Transition devices 0 Relations of time and space 0 Work with crew and actors has a lot of influence over who is hired 0 Suggestions to producer on crew Organize the production shoot script based on budget 0 Specific types of shots transition devices sound effects 0 Shots are continuous recordings of action 0 Based on directors aesthetic approach 000 AESTH ETIC APPROACHES Realism content more then form 0 Depicts the world as it is o Illusion of reality maintain what is real in the world 0 Can be fictional Modernism form more then function 0 Less objectivity feelings of ambiguity o More emotion and subjectivity Postmodernism audience involvement over artists form and content 0 World of unbelievability scifi Create a new world unique to that movie Aesthetic tendencies 0 Function why is something expressed 0 Form how is it expressed 0 Content what is expressed VISUALIZATION shoot because you have thought about how you want it to look 0 Types of shots 0 Long shot LS far away shows a lot of information where we are Wide shot not as long a Establishing shot n The shining LS used to create sense of fear and ominous 0 Medium shot MS 2 people talking to each other Wait up usually can be head to toe n Attention to dialogue 0 Close shotclose up CSCU close on a face or object is center of attention 0 Extreme close up Example shots ofjust an eye Camera angle 0 Point of view POVovertheshoulder OS looking over a shoulder to someone I m talking to More intimacy o Reverseangle set up responses of dialogue between 2 people 0 Lowangle positioned low looking up at something Feeling of inferiority being looked down upon 0 Highangle positioned high looking down on something Feel bigger more important then what is being looked at 0 Overhead shot helicopter Looking down in a long shot environment a At street neighborhood a Establish where we are Camera movement 0 Pan shot camera moves side to side Camera stationary a On shoulder of someone or a tripod o Tilt shot angles up and down Human or tripod Varying angle 0 Pedestal shot special tripod where camera stayed perpendicular and moves up an down Same angle 0 Zoom shot from wide shot to CU or CU to wide shot Most overused o Dolly shot changes perspective of what is being looked at Tracks or wheels to move camera Frequently used in narrativesdramas 0 Trucking shot camera stationary on tripod with wheels Not as smooth as dolly I Has different look a Can truck while walking 0 Tracking shot involve moving tripod with camera moving 0 Craneboom shot sense of flying through something gopro on someone s head or on a stick Used in concert performance videos Can get in close to performer but not interfering with audiences view 0 Composing shots the way images are built in a frame type of camera shot movement and balance TIME BIGGEST DIFFICULTY 0 Frame dimension Aspect ratio width to height driven by projection screen dimensions a 4X3 square height big concern and 16X9 rectangle width big concern used in film TV a 1331 and 1852351 FILM Essential areacritical area critical to aspect ratio I Where action needs to take place where majority of audience will see it guide frame Rule of thirds divide frame into thirds horizontally and vertically to balance frames n Foreground n Midground a Background a To maintain proportionality 0 Symmetry is ok to violate rule of thirds Symmetrical balanced Asymmetrical unbalanced needs to be intentional 0 Closure space Openclosed frames a Open frame gt someone walks on gt closed frame gt closed until that person leaves gt open again Depth background to make more 3 dimensional O Perspective making things not flat Frame movement action and camera movement in one direction or opposing be consistent I Action tends to go in one direction 0 Switching directions can be disturbing to viewers Image qualities blurry purposeful has to have clear meaning a Clear images Scale keeping proportionality between objects Shape Speed of motion a Slow motion brings attention Complicated by time ever changing Combining shots duration of clips or shots multicamera mostly 0 00000 Straight cuttake Fade Dissolve 1 view to another Wipe graphical separator from one side to another Defocus clear to blurry to clear Swish pan fast Can do in single camera environment Special effects 0 0 Split screen have to think about composition Superimposition how to position actions to be able to layer images on top of each other compositing Names over images Keying Chroma key green screen Green room virtual environment Matte old time green screen Psycho shot house without background then edited desired background onto shot Negative image reversals Freeze frame Digital transitions DIRECTING editing involves director Scene construction series of shots Continuity editing creating flow Pace and rhythm speed and duration Compression and expansion of time Screen directionality directional glances 0 Sounds in relation to direction actors look consistent 180 rule consistency of axis action 0 keep action on one line of interest 0 never shoot cameras at opposing directions 0 all on one side of the line SOUND AND IMAGE INTERACTION OnOff screen source is visible or not Commentative no obvious visual source music Actual created from visual source Synchronous matched visual movement Asynchronous movement not matched to visual 0 Comedy 0 Baby opens mouth and barks Parallel blends with visual 0 Walking hear footsteps Gravel wood Contrapuntal contradicts Composing images for prerecorded music 0 Editing to preselected music 0 Composing original music Composing music for prerecorded images 0 Intensify the Action dramatic tension Establish the period or location music from 605 Set atmosphere or mood Stimulate screen emotion Fill dead air fills silence OOOO Production coordination 0 Production meetings crew day to day issues and solving 0 Casting pick actors for rolls 0 Rehearsals solve problems that come up to make sure things go on schedule and in budget Performer and camera blocking practice movement before shoot 41015 928 PM The way images are built in a frame is called composing 4x3 and 16x9 are what aspect ratio As a Director you will create this based on your aesthetic approach shoot script
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