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BI 212 Week 2 Lecture Notes

by: Scott Morrison

BI 212 Week 2 Lecture Notes BI 212

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Biology > BI 212 > BI 212 Week 2 Lecture Notes
Scott Morrison
GPA 3.75
General Biology II: Organisms
Dr. Mark Carrier

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General Biology II: Organisms
Dr. Mark Carrier
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Scott Morrison on Friday April 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BI 212 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. Mark Carrier in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see General Biology II: Organisms in Biology at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 04/10/15
B1212 Lecture Notes Week 2 The Saper Paper The experiment discussed in the Saper paper examined metabolic thermogenesis the use of uncoupling proteins UCPs in creating heat by way of an animal s metabolism UCPs open an additional channel in the membrane of the mitochondrial matrix allowing protons to ow through the UCP AND ATP synthase But the rate of ATP synthesis DOES NOT slow down ATP levels are kept at homeostatic levels Inorder to do this while having protons owing through the UCP the electron transport chain must continue at a faster rate See the diagram below to see the izhole proce s39s WW N H mm N 82 f j A3 0amp 7L0 NW 4 A I MAW MP A F W The UCP creates a kind of leak Imagine blowing into a balloon with a leakIn order to keep the balloon full of air you have to blow faster and harder the ETC must speed up to keep ATP levels at homeostasis while the UCP leak is open Where does the heat come from Heat is molecular movement all those protons moving around create heat How are the UCP construct mice different from the wild type mice The paper states that the UCP mice ate the same amount as the wild type mice had the same level of physical activity as the wild type mice had higher body weights than the wild type mice had lower body temperatures than the wild type mice Why might all of this be true How does the mechanism work The scientists that did this experiment Conti et al spliced a regulatory region and a coding region from two different genes together Remember that the regulatory region tells where the protein is expressed while the coding region tells which protein is expressed The regulatory region of Orexin a protein normally found in the hypothalamus part in the middle area of the brain that manages temperature regulation The coding region of a UCP Oll YIN WP r9 Ev P quot feyl 04 0ampsz L I Mw JP KOCH H D E ex n1ucfl This led to UCPs being expressed in the hypothalamus in the construct mice With additional UCP actiVity in the hypothalamus it was like holding a lighter next to a thermostat the hypothalamus was warm so it was signaling the body to try to cool itself This led the mice to be at a continually cooler temperature Below is a graph of the metabolic rates of the UCP mice vs the wild type mice M ii 410 Ma Arm Few quotL Lm r MVWWWWH Twp As you can see the wild type and UCP mice had the same BMR but the UC mice were acclimated to lower temperatures If all the mice were kept at the temperature highlighted in orange the UCP mice would be in their thermoneutral range but the wild type mice would not they would be expending extra energy trying to stay warm This explains why the UCP mice gained weight they were eating the same amount but were not burning as many calories as the wild type mice Surface Area and Size Animals have constraints on the ratio of surface area to size or the SAV ratio The biggest complication of this ratio is heat lossabsorption The key principle is that as mass increases volume increases proportional to mass3 but surface area increases proportional to mass There are no extremely large ectotherms these animals have to absorb heat from the environment to regulate their metabolism With enough mass there isn t enough surface area to heat all the volume The SAV ratio is too low There are no very tiny endotherms with little mass there is too much surface area and heat can t be retained easily the animal would constantly be eating in order to fuel the process of heating itself to compensate for the high amount of heat loss The SAV ratio is too high Cell Size and Fuel Consumption in Organisms On average cells are the same size and density from organism to organism so why is it that some cells burn more fuel than others Let s look at endotherms The cells from a large endotherm do not have to deal with as much surface area heat loss as the cells from a smaller animal so the smaller animal s cells burn more fuel compensating for heat loss than those of the larger animal This is why if 100 mice weigh the same as 1 cat the 100 mice have more surface area so they consume more fuel than the cat The cells of smaller animals are the same size as those of larger animals but they have higher BMRs Massspecific rate or cellular BMR is higher the smaller an animal is I think Dr Carrier has only applied this concept to endotherms Bergmann s Rule For any species size increases with increasing distance from the equator Colder climates yield bigger indiViduals in any species Allen s Rule For any species a colder climate will produce indiViduals with short limbs and stocky torsos low SAV ratio for heat conservation A warmer climate produces indiViduals with long limbs and slender torsos high SAV ratio for easy heat loss Plant Biology Anatomy of plants Meristems locations in plants where growth can occur These contain undifferentiated cells There are both root and shoot meristems shoot apical meristem SAM root apical meristem RAM Phytomers Functional Units of Plants Apical buds buds where growth is taking place Axillary buds Dormant buds inhibited by plant growth hormones auxincytokinin were the apical bud to be cut off the hormone imbalance would cause an axillary bud to become an apical bud more on this below Auxin and Cytokinin How do cut off roots or shoots become whole plants again A plant produces two growth hormones auxin and cytokininAuxin is made at the top of the shoot and travels down to the roots of the plant High auxin levels signifiy to the roots that the shoot is doing fine Cytokinin is produced at the roots and travels up to the shoots High cytokynin levels signal to the shoot that the roots are fine If the plant were to be cut in half the roots would not receive any auxin so that would tell them to grow a new shoot The shoot would not be receiving any cytokinin so that would tell the shoot to grow a new root Plant cells unlike animal cells are totipotent they can undergo dedifferentiation meanirlg they can if needed become any type of plant tissue embryonic animal cells are totipotent bu totipotency does not occur in most fully grown animals Homologous structures similarlooking or functioning structures that developed from a common ancestor Analogous structures similarlooking or functioning structures that evolved in unrelated animals from living in the same environment and being exposed to the same evolutionary pressure In plants spines thorns and pricks are analogous structures How do plant cells know which type of plant tissue to become How does a leaf know it s a leaf Transcription Factors All cells have the same DNA so how does gene expression vary across a plant The regulatory regions of each gene have unique sets of target sites to which transcription factors bond Transcription factors are proteins that in certain combinations allow or prohibit RNA polymerase to bind to the regulatory region The presence and absence of certain transcription factors in a cell dictate the type of cell How do we figure out when and where gene expression occurs for each gene Use the same genesplicing technique used in the Saper paper change the regulatory region to move the protein to a different place In lecture we used the regulatory region from 35s a plant virus gene This regulatory region causes a protein to be expressed in all of a plant s cells Dr Carrier also included an example of root hair cells and the GLABRA2 gene I Will try to include this example in the next set of notes When I have a better handle on it


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